Green Plant Extract-Based Synthesis of Multifunctional Nanoparticles and their Biological Activities

How Nanoparticles Enter the Human Body and their Effects

Author(s): Seyed Morteza Naghib* and Hamid Reza Garshasbi *

Pp: 66-93 (28)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815179156123010004

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


The new scientific innovation of engineering nanoparticles (NPs) at the atomic scale (diameter<100nm) has led to numerous novel and useful wide applications in electronics, chemicals, environmental protection, medical imaging, disease diagnoses, drug delivery, cancer treatment, gene therapy, etc. The manufacturers and consumers of nanoparticle-related industrial products, however, are likely to be exposed to these engineered nanomaterials, which have various physical and chemical properties at levels far beyond ambient concentrations. These nanosized particles are likely to increase unnecessary infinite toxicological effects on animals and the environment, although their toxicological effects associated with human exposure are still unknown. These ultrafine particles can enter the body through skin pores, debilitated tissues, injection, olfactory, respiratory, and intestinal tracts. These uptake routes of NPs may be intentional or unintentional. Their entry may lead to various diversified adverse biological effects. Until a clearer picture emerges, the limited data available suggest that caution must be exercised when potential exposures to NPs are encountered. Some methods have been used to determine the portal routes of nanoscale materials on experimental animals. They include pharyngeal instillation, injection, inhalation, cell culture lines and gavage exposures. 

Keywords: Intestinal tracts, NPs uptake, Respiratory system, Toxicological effects.

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