Advanced Materials and Nano Systems: Theory and Experiment (Part-1)

The Fundamental Concepts of Nanotechnology-Based Nanomaterials: Recent Developments and Challenges of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles

Author(s): Asma Almontasser and Azra Parveen *

Pp: 120-157 (38)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815050745122010010

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)

Abstract

Nanotechnology is one of the most promising new technologies in the recent decade, which involves structures, devices, and systems with novel properties and functions due to their atomic arrangement on scales of 1–100 nm. In general, the materials at the nanoscale have unique physical, mechanical, chemical, and biological properties compared to their bulk materials. Thus, these properties lead to a new novelty and variety of technological applications in the different fields (physics, science and engineering, electrical and computer science, materials, chemistry, biology, and medicine). This chapter provides a brief introduction of nanotechnology, nanomaterials, and their applications while discussing structural, optical, and magnetic properties as well as antibacterial activities. This chapter overviews the current research being carried out on the properties and application of metal oxide nanoparticles, especially chromium oxide (Cr2O3 ) nanoparticles, indium oxide nanoparticles (In2O3 ), and magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles. These materials are considered novel materials for biological and smart applications, such as antimicrobial, drug delivery systems, and cancer therapy. Multi-drug and antibiotic resistance are among the great challenges that confront researchers in designing and developing efficient antimicrobial and biomedical agents. Inspired by the remarkable developments in nanoparticles in recent times, antibacterial metal oxide nanoparticles have been discovered as potential antibiotics to restrict infectious diseases. Thus, the mechanism of anti-microbial activities of metal oxide nanoparticles is discussed here in detail. In this chapter, a brief literature survey related to the present study is also performed. By the end of the chapter, the concluding remarks with views on the recent progress and future challenges of metal oxide nanoparticles are appended.


Keywords: Antimicrobial activities, Chromium oxide, Indium oxide, Metal oxide nanoparticles, Magnesium oxide nanoparticles, Magnetic properties, Nanotechnology, Optical properties

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