As the world progresses towards sustainable energy and concomitant
decarbonization of its electrical supply, modern civilization is approaching the fourth
industrial revolution with a boom of digital devices and innovative technologies. As a
result, the demand for high-performance batteries has skyrocketed, and many research
initiatives for the design and development of high-performance rechargeable batteries
are being taken. With the incremental standardization of battery designs, enhancement
in their performance mainly relies on technical advancement in key electrode materials
(cathode and anode materials). This chapters reviews the state-of-the-art materials used
in fabricating electrodes, including a description of their structures and storage
mechanisms and modification of commonly used materials for electrode working either
in the solid-state or in the solution for aqueous or non-aqueous electrolytes. Based on
the appropriate metrics such as operating voltage, specific energy, capacity, cyclic
stability and life cycle, the performance of different electrodes has also been assessed.
Along with the recent advancement, pertaining limitations are briefly covered and
analyzed with some viable solutions in the pursuit of cathode and anode materials with
fast kinetics, high voltage, and long cycle life.