Ethanol has increasingly attracted attention of researchers. Currently, ethanol is synthesized by different routes, such as production from the synthesis gas, ethylene hydration and fermentation of sugars. In addition, microalgae have been recognized as the potential sources for biofuel production, since they reach high biomass productivities. Recently, the use of microalgal biomass as feedstock for bioethanol production became an interest for researchers and then for the general public. Therefore, the aim of this chapter is to introduce the basics of algal-ethanol production and the current status of this emerging bioethanol source.