The Human Immunodeficiency Virus and AIDS (HIV/AIDS) pandemic remains a public health challenge and a significant obstacle to socioeconomic development especially in developing countries. HIV/AIDS is a serious disease and has claimed millions of lives across the world in recent years. Many Individuals, families and communities including adults and children from across the world, particularly in low-and middle-income countries have been affected by this scourge. To address this problem, community involvement in HIV/AIDS prevention has been recognized, particularly because HIV/AIDS acquisition and transmission occur through community interactions and via complex social networks. Recognition of factors contributing to susceptibility and the spread of HIV/AIDS within countries, societies, communities and populations groups is necessary in order to halt this pandemic. Recognising these factors will inform the development of strategies to address the epidemic within general communities and within specific key population groups. Networks of individuals such as sexual partners, community members and societies need to be recognised as important in HIV transmission and prevention and understanding of communities dynamics including within families, friends and acquaintances should be the first entry point for HIV/AIDS management strategies. Involvement of communities will include developing and implementing community-based approaches to HIV counseling, testing, treatment and prevention. Effective linkages of these approaches with health facilitybased services and eradicating the barriers that key populations face in accessing these services are necessary measures. Improving policies and interventions including providing effective education to various key populations and subgroups will facilitate effective life-saving choices.