Due to sharing common routes for transmission, a significant portion of HIV infected patients are co-infected with hepatitis related viruses. It is well documented that the prognosis, pathological pathways, immunological aspects and finally drug responsiveness are different between mono versus co-infected patients. Although the detailed mechanisms regarding disease exacerbation during HIV and hepatitis virus coinfection remain uncovered, recent findings are promising in the better understanding of the interactions that, in turn maybe valuable in drug discovery.
Close interaction of viruses at common site of replication, synergic actions of proteins, changing the immune response and remodeling the cell milieu through miRNA profile are among possible manners of cooperation/counteraction between HIV and hepatitis viruses that are taken into consideration here.
As HIV infection tends to accelerate the progression of HCV and HBV infections, clinical management of this patient group must be considered more seriously. All HIV cases should be tested for HCV and HBV serological/molecular markers for further management in clinical setting and special therapeutic trend for virus control also should be employed as well.