In this chapter the main botanical and agricultural aspects of the olive (Olea europaea L.) are summarized. In the section on botany, the functional parts and the biological cycle of the plant are described; while in the agricultural one, the environmental and physiological demands of the plant, and the most diffused training shapes are reported. In the agronomical section are described the main soil practices, with the aim of to preserve and improve ground conditions, such as setups, tillages, weeding, grassing; and trees practices, regarding plant growth and yield, such as irrigation, fertilization, and pruning. Then, a section regarding harvesting systems in different olive orchard typologies, and the control of olive pests and diseases in traditional, sustainable and organic farming, completes this chapter.
Keywords: Agricultural aspects, agronomic techniques, biological aspects, cultivation techniques, increase productivity, integrated farming, olive ecosystem, olive growing, olive production, orchard management, pests and diseases.