The chapter is dedicated to the issues of clinical oncoproteomics, its role and place in contemporary medicine in general, and in oncology in particular. We attempted to systemize the views of different researchers and detect information and significance of the evidence of clinical oncoproteomics for the development of novel methods of diagnostics and cancer therapy using cell, genome and post-genome technologies. The chapter summarizes contemporary ideas of tumor carcinogenesis centrally laying emphasis on the theoretical, methodological and technic the aspects of the novel medical approach of personalized proteome-based cell therapy of neoplasms. Experience of mapping, proteome and transcriptome profiling of postnatal regional progenitors and cancer stem cells in different cancer cases, methods of bioinformatical processing and mathematical modeling of the results have been elucidated. The basic mathematical tool kit to detect targets for the regulation of proliferative and reproductive functions of cancer stem cell in the tumor and the way to obtain target individually tailored anti-cancer proteome-modified cell preparations have been highlighted. Further, the mechanisms, limitations and prospects of application of these biotechnologies based on clinical oncoproteomics in the target therapy of cancer and recent patents have also been discussed.
Keywords: Cancer cells, cancer immune therapy, cancer stem cells, cancer, cell signaling, chemical induction, clinical proteomics, glioblastoma, intracellular signal transduction pathways, multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, neoplasm, neural stem cells, personalized cancer therapy, proteome mapping, proteome, proteomics, stem cells, target therapy, tumor, U87 glioblastoma.