Transplanted organs can transmit infectious diseases to recipients with varying consequences depending on the pathogen, the infection status of the recipient and the effectiveness of treatment (curative and/or preventive). In this non-exhaustive review, we detailed the classical diseases transmitted by the transplanted kidney which can be easily detected in the deceased donor with the last recommendations of treatment, but also emerging infectious diseases due to the increasing mobility of populations (conventional tourism , transplant tourism, immigration .). New challenge in this field, is the earliest possible detection of infectious agents from the donor to guide the decision of organ harvesting and direct matching D/R . Pending the use of Nucleic Acid Testing in routine, it remains essential, in addition to conventional serological tests, to achieve a very specific examination, paying particular attention to record the countries visited by the donor, as well as performing systematic bacteriological and mycological analysis of preservation solution.
Keywords: Kidney Transplantation, Tissue Donor, Tissue and Organ Procurement, Bacterial Infection Transmission, Virus Disease Transmission, Parasitic Disease Transmission, Mycoses Transmission, Emigration and Immigration, Travel.