COVID-19: Origin, Impact and Management, Part 1

The Outbreak of COVID-19 Coronavirus and Associated Facts and Factors

Author(s): Anushka Pandey, Anju Verma, Pavan Kumar Nagar and Tahmeena Khan *

Pp: 1-26 (26)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815123883123010004

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


 COVID-19 is a global pandemic resulting in devastating impacts that spread through a virus and are even more contagious than influenza, as evident from the frequent reporting of cluster outbreaks. Although the key problem is that the symptoms are often similar to other common illnesses, such outbreaks can be controlled if individuals with initial symptoms are tested, and further contact tracing is done. The concept presented here discusses the order in which symptoms appear to differentiate it from other respiratory disorders, however, this crucial information is mostly missing. To determine the most likely order of detectable symptoms in COVID-19 patients, we apply a Markov Process to a graded partially ordered set based on clinical observations of COVID-19 cases. A comparison was made between the evolution of these symptoms in COVID-19 and influenza, SARS, and MERS to see if they were present differently. Influenza, according to our hypothesis, begins with a cough, whereas COVID-19 and other coronavirus infections begin with a fever. COVID-19, on the other hand, varies from SARS and MERS in terms of the order of gastrointestinal symptoms. As facilities begin to reopen following the 2020 spring outbreak, our findings support the idea that fever should be used to screen for admission and that appropriate clinical practice should include noting the order of symptoms occurrence in COVID-19 along with other diseases. If this type of systemic clinical approach had been routine, the move from a local to a worldwide pandemic might not have happened.

Keywords: Clinical approach, COVID-19, Fever, Infections, Markov Process, MERS, Pandemic, SARS, Variants.

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