Toll-Like Receptors in Vector-borne Diseases

TLRs and Visceral Leishmaniasis

Author(s): Jayalakshmi Krishnan *

Pp: 31-39 (9)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815124545123010007

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


Sandly bites transmit the Leishmania parasites under the skin, and the disease remains a major public health problem in infected countries. There are two types of Leishmaniasis, 1) Visceral Leishmaniasis 2) cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Among these two types, Visceral Leishmaniasis is fatal, and, if not treated, leads to mortality. It is observed that approximately 90% of cases come from India, Bangladesh, Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia, and Brazil. These diseases are caused by L. major, L. mexicana, L. guyanensis, L. amazonensis, L. braziliensis, and visceral Leishmaniasis by L. donovani, and L. chagasi. Experimental studies in KO of TLR2 and TLR4 have shown larger lesions and higher parasite loads upon infection with L. mexicana than the control mice [1]. Leishmania DNA is recognised as a PAMP by TLR9 [2]. These parasites are rapidly phagocytosized by neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Different parasites of Leishmania elicit different kinds of responses in the host, which in turn depends on the genetics and immune responses of the host.

Keywords: L. braziliensis, L.chagasi, L. donovani, L. major, L.major, Pegylated bisacycloxypropylcysteine.

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