Compositional designed electrodes exhibiting high specific capacities are of
great interest towards align="center"high performance charge storage devices.
Electrode surface can store charge or guest ions due to structural confinement effect.
Ion storage capacity depends on the structural integrity of electrode (anode) materials
of batteries. Electrolyte selection also decides the storage capacity of batteries and
other charge storage devices. Volume expansion or variation can be minimized through
structural variation of the electrode. align="center"The charging phenomenon proceeds
through the continuous ion destruction process of adsorbed ions into semipermeable
align="center"pores. Dimension controlled electrode materials possess superior ion
storage capacity. The contemporary design is an effective way to improve the charge
storage capacity of electrodes. Low dimension materials exhibit better charge storage
capacity due to high surface density (surface to volume ratio) and efficient charge
confinement. The confined dimensions (quantum confinement) play important roles in
orienting the desired kinetic properties of nanomaterials, such as charge transport and
diffusion. This chapter emphasizes critical overviews of the state-of-the-art nanowiresbased align="center"electrodes for energy storage devices, such as lithium-ion
batteries, lithium-ion capacitors, sodium-ion batteries, and supercapacitors. Ions or
charges can be percolated easily through nanowire networks due to fast adsorption and
diffusion. High-rate capability is intensified align="center"over large electroactive
surface in align="center"an ordered nanowire electrode.
Keywords: Active electrodes, Batteries, Capacitors, Charge storage capacity, Capacity retention, Composite storage surface, Energy density, Electrolyte wettability, Electrode strain accommodation, Functionalized phase, Ion adsorption, Interfacial ion exchange, align="center"Metal-organic framework, Nanowire, Nanowire array, Nanowire nucleation sites, Redox active sites, Redox reaction, Surface penetration.