Mushrooms are protein-rich, highly nutritive, popular food around the
world. The cultivation of mushrooms has been in practice for decades. Studies have
been conducted to utilize the agricultural waste, and agro-forest remains as the
substrate for mushroom production. Agri wastes such as wheat straw, paddy straw,
bran, coffee grounds, banana leaves, sawdust, etc., are highly used, and the availability
of such substrates is not common among the cultivating areas. Besides the development
of new protocols and the invention of a perfect combination of the substrate and
supplements is an ongoing interest in the mushroom production industry. In Karnataka,
agricultural remains such as areca husk, sugar cane bagasse, paddy straw, and maize
stem are available to use for mushroom cultivation. Also, agro-forest residues like
Cassia tora are a substantial material to turn waste into the substrate. This chapter is an
approach towards such substrate utilization to improve the economy of the farmer
community and a promotion towards sustainable mushroom production.
Keywords: Agricultural waste, Areca husk, Forest residues, Spawn, Substrate.