Knowing the anatomical differences between the pediatric patient and the
adult patient are important for perioperative anesthetic care. This chapter will describe
the head, neck, and airway anatomical differences in pediatric patients and their
perioperative implications. In addition, this chapter will explore the physiology of
different organ systems in the pediatric patient and the perioperative considerations for
the anesthesia provider.
Keywords: Anatomy and physiology, Pediatric airway anatomy, Pediatric cardiovascular physiology, Pediatric endocrine physiology, Pediatric hematology physiology, Pediatric renal and hepatic physiology, Pediatric respiratory physiology, Temperature regulation.