Science of Spices and Culinary Herbs - Latest Laboratory, Pre-clinical, and Clinical Studies

Volume: 5

Clove: The Spice of Polyvalent Merit

Author(s): Abdul Jalil Shah, Reyaz Hassan Mir*, Roohi Mohi-ud-din, Prince Ahad Mir, Saba Sabreen, Rafia Jan, Taha Umair Wani, Shah Asma Farooq and Mubashir Hussain Masoodi *

Pp: 1-26 (26)

DOI: 10.2174/9789814998154121050003

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


Syzygium aromaticum (Family Myrtaceae), commonly acknowledged as clove, is one of the most valuable spices in the world trade market with global distribution, though Indonesia has maintained its top position as a producer. Clove has sustained its value in the past, dating back to 1700 BC, as is evident from clove found in a ceramic vessel in Syria and modern society. It is well integrated into culinary and non-culinary practices. Apart from culinary use, its distinctive chemical style has demonstrated incredible potential for cosmetic, medicinal, nutrition, and agricultural applications. The ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorption Capacity) of the clove is above 10 million, making it the most potent antioxidant source ever found in a natural system. Clove imparts a vast range of activities due to various chemical compounds, for example, phenolics, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and other hydrocarbon compounds. The significant phytoconstituents present in clove oil are primarily eugenol (70-85%), trailed by eugenol acetate (14-15%), and β-caryophyllene (5–12%). Their derivatives result in an extensive gamut of biological activity as antifungal, herbicidal, nematicidal, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antithrombotic, anaesthetic, pain-relieving, and insect repellent properties. Clove also finds its exceptional locus among various traditional medicinal practices. Along these lines, it is wise to say that clove itself has magnanimous pride among natural products. That is why we thought of covering its phytochemistry, phytopharmacology, and traditional values in detail. This chapter aims to present a comprehensive review of traditional and ethnomedicinal uses of clove in traditional medicine. We will then discuss the pharmacological activities reported for clove.

Keywords: Antioxidant, Clove, Eugenol, Pharmacological properties, Phytochemistry, Traditional medicine.

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