Genomic platforms, improved in the last decade at high throughput level, are becoming an elective tool in food analysis, in addition to the traditional microbiological, chemical and physical methods. Because milk and its products are among the most frequent causes of food-allergies, and cow milk is the major culprit, determination of animal origin of milk employed in a dairy manufacturing, is important to establish the safety of a supply chain. Since 1992, the European Union has introduced labels of origin (Protected Designation of Origin, Protected Geographical Indication, Traditional Speciality Guaranteed) to eliminate unfair competition and misleading of consumers by non-genuine products. Identification of animal species in milk food chain is therefore important to protect products subjected to labeling, as buffalo Mozzarella, sheep and goat cheese or Parmesan cheese. Amplification of single traits of animal DNA, residual in milk and cheese, through end point or real time PCR, allowed identification, and in some cases quantitation, of animal source of dairy products. This chapter reviews application of genomics against adulteration in dairy food chain, in particular to identify animal origin of milk and cheese.
Keywords: Adulteration, Buffalo milk, Cheese, Cow milk, Dairy, DNA analysis, End point PCR, Food chain, Goat milk, Limit of detection, Limit of quantitation, Linear dynamic range, Milk, Multiplex PCR, Quantitative PCR, Real time PCR, Sheep milk.