The derivation of human embryonic stem cells in the last decades, made possible by the parallel and growing development of in vitro fertilization and embryo cryopreservation technologies, have opened the door for regenerative medicine. The study of cell replacement in loss of function diseases has received further impulse by the derivation of induced pluripotent cells less than 10 years ago. Currently, pluripotent cells are extensively employed in disease modeling, toxicology testing, and drug discovery. Phase I clinical trials with both embryonic and induced pluripotent cells derivates have been underway for a few years now, and initial results have been published recently. As the field of regenerative medicine moves forward at an impressive pace, we aim to review the origin and characteristics of the different kind of pluripotent stem cells, their potential use in key translational areas, and the challenges and opportunities that we face for their integrated use in a modern and personalized medicine.