Background: Silimarin is the dry mixture of a whole family of natural substances, extracted after the addition of ethanol, methanol, and acetone. Silimarin consists mainly of silibin A and silibin B, as well as other less important compounds.
Methods: Silimarin has been demonstrated to “inhibit cell proliferation and to induce apoptosis, while also having anti-angiogenic properties.” The induction of apoptosis in cancer cells has been mediated by the involvement of ER stress.
Results: Silibinin has the potential to operate as a STAT3-targeted inhibitor as well as an inhibitor of the upregulation of the immune checkpoint regulator PD-L1 and also EMT regulators, thus being a promising adjuvant in NSCLC. It has also been documented to suppress cancer cells be means of down- regulating actin cytoskeleton and PI3K / Akt molecular pathways. Several studies have demonstrated that silibinin exerts its protective potential partly through interacting with the tumor suppressor gene p53.
Conclusions: It is noteworthy that research has been carried out on the enhancement of silimarin’s bioavailability, especially by the preparation of specific nanoformulas, and its probable additional use together with the chemotherapeutic regimens in the near future.