Generic placeholder image

Current Neuropharmacology


ISSN (Print): 1570-159X
ISSN (Online): 1875-6190

Review Article

Putative Mechanisms of Action and Clinical Use of Lithium in Children and Adolescents: A Critical Review

Author(s): Simone Pisano*, Marco Pozzi, Gennaro Catone, Giulia Scrinzi, Emilio Clementi, Giangennaro Coppola, Annarita Milone, Carmela Bravaccio, Paramala Santosh and Gabriele Masi

Volume 17, Issue 4, 2019

Page: [318 - 341] Pages: 24

DOI: 10.2174/1570159X16666171219142120

Price: $65


Background: Lithium is a first-line treatment for bipolar disorder in adults, but its mechanism of action is still far from clear. Furthermore, evidences of its use in pediatric populations are sparse, not only for bipolar disorders, but also for other possible indications.

Objectives: To provide a synthesis of published data on the possible mechanisms of action of lithium, as well as on its use in pediatric samples, including pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety data.

Methods: Clinical trials in pediatric samples with at least one standardized measure of efficacy/ effectiveness were included in this review. We considered: i) randomized and open label trials, ii) combination studies iii) augmentation studies iv) case series including at least 5 patients.

Results: Different and non-alternative mechanisms of action can explain the clinical efficacy of lithium. Clinical studies in pediatric samples suggest that lithium is effective in managing manic symptoms/episodes of bipolar disorder, both in the acute phase and as maintenance strategy. Efficacy on depressive symptoms/phases of bipolar disorder is much less clear, while studies do not support its use in unipolar depression and severe mood dysregulation. Conversely, it may be effective on aggression in the context of conduct disorder. Other possible indications, with limited published evidence, are the acute attacks in Kleine-Levin syndrome, behavioral symptoms of X-fragile syndrome, and the management of clozapine- or chemotherapy- induced neutropenia. Generally, lithium resulted relatively safe.

Conclusions: Lithium seems an effective and well-tolerated medication in pediatric bipolar disorder and aggression, while further evidences are needed for other clinical indications.

Keywords: Children, adolescents, lithium, efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action.

Graphical Abstract
Schou, M. Lithium treatment at 52. J. Affect. Disord., 2001, 67(1-3), 21-32.
[] [PMID: 11869750]
Cipriani, A.; Hawton, K.; Stockton, S.; Geddes, J.R. Lithium in the prevention of suicide in mood disorders: Updated systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ, 2013, 346, f3646.
[] [PMID: 23814104]
Miura, T.; Noma, H.; Furukawa, T.A.; Mitsuyasu, H.; Tanaka, S.; Stockton, S.; Salanti, G.; Motomura, K.; Shimano-Katsuki, S.; Leucht, S.; Cipriani, A.; Geddes, J.R.; Kanba, S. Comparative efficacy and tolerability of pharmacological treatments in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder: A systematic review and network meta-analysis. Lancet Psychiatry, 2014, 1(5), 351-359.
[] [PMID: 26360999]
Tueth, M.J.; Murphy, T.K.; Evans, D.L. Special considerations: Use of lithium in children, adolescents, and elderly populations. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 1998, 59(Suppl. 6), 66-73.
[PMID: 9674939]
Liu, H.Y.; Potter, M.P.; Woodworth, K.Y.; Yorks, D.M.; Petty, C.R.; Wozniak, J.R.; Faraone, S.V.; Biederman, J. Pharmacologic treatments for pediatric bipolar disorder: A review and meta-analysis. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 2011, 50(8), 749-62.e39.
[] [PMID: 21784295]
Can, A.; Schulze, T.G.; Gould, T.D. Molecular actions and clinical pharmacogenetics of lithium therapy. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 2014, 123, 3-16.
[] [PMID: 24534415]
Jope, R.S.; Nemeroff, C.B. Lithium to the Rescue., 2016. Cerebrum. 2016. pii: cer-02-16. eCollection 2016, Jan-Feb
Malhi, G.S.; Outhred, T. Therapeutic mechanisms of lithium in bipolar disorder: Recent advances and current understanding. CNS Drugs, 2016, 30(10), 931-949.
[] [PMID: 27638546]
Beaulieu, J.M.; Gainetdinov, R.R.; Caron, M.G. Akt/GSK3 signaling in the action of psychotropic drugs. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 2009, 49, 327-347.
[ 10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.011008.145634.]
Quiroz, J.A.; Machado-Vieira, R.; Zarate, C.A., Jr; Manji, H.K. Novel insights into lithium’s mechanism of action: neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects. Neuropsychobiology, 2010, 62(1), 50-60.
[] [PMID: 20453535]
Berk, M.; Dandash, O.; Daglas, R.; Cotton, S.M.; Allott, K.; Fornito, A.; Suo, C.; Klauser, P.; Liberg, B.; Henry, L.; Macneil, C.; Hasty, M.; McGorry, P.; Pantelis, C.; Yücel, M. Neuroprotection after a first episode of mania: a randomized controlled maintenance trial comparing the effects of lithium and quetiapine on grey and white matter volume. Transl. Psychiatry, 2017, 7(1), e1011.
[] [PMID: 28117843]
Kafantaris, V.; Spritzer, L.; Doshi, V.; Saito, E.; Szeszko, P.R. Changes in white matter microstructure predict lithium response in adolescents with bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord., 2017, 19(7), 587-594. Epub ahead of print
[] [PMID: 28992395]
The Oxford 2009 levels of evidence., 2009.
Birch, N.J.; Hullin, R.P.; Inie, R.A.; Leaf, F.C. Proceedings: Effects of lithium on the activity of pyruvate kinase and other magnesium dependent enzymes. Br. J. Pharmacol., 1974, 52(1), 139P.
[PMID: 4451790]
Veloso, D.; Guynn, R.W.; Oskarsson, M.; Veech, R.L. The concentrations of free and bound magnesium in rat tissues. Relative constancy of free Mg 2+ concentrations. J. Biol. Chem., 1973, 248(13), 4811-4819.
[PMID: 4718747]
Ryves, W.J.; Harwood, A.J. Lithium inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3 by competition for magnesium. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2001, 280(3), 720-725.
[] [PMID: 11162580]
Siwek, M.; Styczeń, K.; Sowa-Kućma, M.; Dudek, D.; Reczyński, W.; Szewczyk, B.; Misztak, P.; Opoka, W.; Topór-Mądry, R.; Nowak, G. The serum concentration of magnesium as a potential state marker in patients with diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Psychiatr. Pol., 2015, 49(6), 1277-1287.
[] [PMID: 26909402]
Widmer, J.; Bovier, P.; Karege, F.; Raffin, Y.; Hilleret, H.; Gaillard, J.M.; Tissot, R. Evolution of blood magnesium, sodium and potassium in depressed patients followed for three months. Neuropsychobiology, 1992, 26(4), 173-179.
[] [PMID: 1299790]
Young, L.T.; Robb, J.C.; Levitt, A.J.; Cooke, R.G.; Joffe, R.T. Serum Mg2+ and Ca2+/Mg2+ ratio in major depressive disorder. Neuropsychobiology, 1996, 34(1), 26-28.
[] [PMID: 8884756]
Chouinard, G.; Beauclair, L.; Geiser, R.; Etienne, P. A pilot study of magnesium aspartate hydrochloride (Magnesiocard) as a mood stabilizer for rapid cycling bipolar affective disorder patients. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry, 1990, 14(2), 171-180.
[] [PMID: 2309035]
Willmroth, F.; Drieling, T.; Lamla, U.; Marcushen, M.; Wark, H.J.; van Calker, D. Sodium-myo-inositol co-transporter (SMIT-1) mRNA is increased in neutrophils of patients with bipolar 1 disorder and down-regulated under treatment with mood stabilizers. Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol., 2007, 10(1), 63-71.
[] [PMID: 16420717]
Montero-Lomelí, M.; Galvão, D.; Morais, B.B.; Nardi, A.E. Erythrocyte phosphoglucomutase activity of bipolar I patients currently using lithium or carbamazepine. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res., 2007, 40(1), 19-25.
[] [PMID: 17224992]
Allison, J.H.; Stewart, M.A. Reduced brain inositol in lithium-treated rats. Nat. New Biol., 1971, 233(43), 267-268.
[] [PMID: 5288124]
Allison, J.H.; Blisner, M.E.; Holland, W.H.; Hipps, P.P.; Sherman, W.R. Increased brain myo-inositol 1-phosphate in lithium-treated rats. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 1976, 71(2), 664-670.
[] [PMID: 962945]
Shaldubina, A.; Stahl, Z.; Furszpan, M.; Regenold, W.T.; Shapiro, J.; Belmaker, R.H.; Bersudsky, Y. Inositol deficiency diet and lithium effects. Bipolar Disord., 2006, 8(2), 152-159.
[] [PMID: 16542185]
El Khoury, A.; Petterson, U.; Kallner, G.; Aberg-Wistedt, A.; Stain-Malmgren, R. Calcium homeostasis in long-term lithium-treated women with bipolar affective disorder. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry, 2002, 26(6), 1063-1069.
[] [PMID: 12452527]
Wasserman, M.J.; Corson, T.W.; Sibony, D.; Cooke, R.G.; Parikh, S.V.; Pennefather, P.S.; Li, P.P.; Warsh, J.J. Chronic lithium treatment attenuates intracellular calcium mobilization. Neuropsychopharmacology, 2004, 29(4), 759-769.
[] [PMID: 14970832]
Beaulieu, J.M.; Sotnikova, T.D.; Marion, S.; Lefkowitz, R.J.; Gainetdinov, R.R.; Caron, M.G. An Akt/beta-arrestin 2/PP2A signaling complex mediates dopaminergic neurotransmission and behavior. Cell, 2005, 122(2), 261-273.
[] [PMID: 16051150]
Cross, D.A.; Alessi, D.R.; Cohen, P.; Andjelkovich, M.; Hemmings, B.A. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 by insulin mediated by protein kinase B. Nature, 1995, 378(6559), 785-789.
[] [PMID: 8524413]
O’Brien, W.T.; Huang, J.; Buccafusca, R.; Garskof, J.; Valvezan, A.J.; Berry, G.T.; Klein, P.S. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 is essential for β-arrestin-2 complex formation and lithium-sensitive behaviors in mice. J. Clin. Invest., 2011, 121(9), 3756-3762.
[] [PMID: 21821916]
Beaulieu, J.M.; Marion, S.; Rodriguiz, R.M.; Medvedev, I.O.; Sotnikova, T.D.; Ghisi, V.; Wetsel, W.C.; Lefkowitz, R.J.; Gainetdinov, R.R.; Caron, M.G. A beta-arrestin 2 signaling complex mediates lithium action on behavior. Cell, 2008, 132(1), 125-136.
[] [PMID: 18191226]
Otaegi, G.; Yusta-Boyo, M.J.; Vergaño-Vera, E.; Méndez-Gómez, H.R.; Carrera, A.C.; Abad, J.L.; González, M.; de la Rosa, E.J.; Vicario-Abejón, C.; de Pablo, F. Modulation of the PI 3-kinase-Akt signalling pathway by IGF-I and PTEN regulates the differentiation of neural stem/precursor cells. J. Cell Sci., 2006, 119(Pt 13), 2739-2748.
[] [PMID: 16787946]
Kalluri, H.S.; Vemuganti, R.; Dempsey, R.J. Mechanism of insulin-like growth factor I-mediated proliferation of adult neural progenitor cells. Role of Akt. Eur. J. Neurosci., 2007, 25(4), 1041-1048.
[] [PMID: 17331200]
Roche, S.; Koegl, M.; Courtneidge, S.A. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase alpha is required for DNA synthesis induced by some, but not all, growth factors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1994, 91(19), 9185-9189.
[] [PMID: 8090789]
Gingras, A.C.; Kennedy, S.G.; O’Leary, M.A.; Sonenberg, N.; Hay, N. 4E-BP1, a repressor of mRNA translation, is phosphorylated and inactivated by the Akt(PKB) signaling pathway. Genes Dev., 1998, 12(4), 502-513.
[] [PMID: 9472019]
Nicholls, D.G.; Budd, S.L. Neuronal excitotoxicity: the role of mitochondria. Biofactors, 1998, 8(3-4), 287-299.
[] [PMID: 9914831]
Lee, K.H.; Park, J.H.; Won, R.; Lee, H.; Nam, T.S.; Lee, B.H. Inhibition of hexokinase leads to neuroprotection against excitotoxicity in organotypic hippocampal slice culture. J. Neurosci. Res., 2011, 89(1), 96-107.
[] [PMID: 21046563]
Cano-Ramírez, D.; Torres-Vargas, C.E.; Guerrero-Castillo, S.; Uribe-Carvajal, S.; Hernández-Pando, R.; Pedraza-Chaverri, J.; Orozco-Ibarra, M. Effect of glycolysis inhibition on mitochondrial function in rat brain. J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol., 2012, 26(5), 206-211.
[] [PMID: 22539072]
Wisniewska, M.B. Physiological role of β-catenin/TCF signaling in neurons of the adult brain. Neurochem. Res., 2013, 38(6), 1144-1155.
[] [PMID: 23377854]
Szamosi, A.; Kelemen, O.; Kéri, S. Hippocampal volume and the AKT signaling system in first-episode schizophrenia. J. Psychiatr. Res., 2012, 46(3), 279-284.
[] [PMID: 22209534]
Du, K.; Montminy, M. CREB is a regulatory target for the protein kinase Akt/PKB. J. Biol. Chem., 1998, 273(49), 32377-32379.
[] [PMID: 9829964]
Tao, X.; Finkbeiner, S.; Arnold, D.B.; Shaywitz, A.J.; Greenberg, M.E. Ca2+ influx regulates BDNF transcription by a CREB family transcription factor-dependent mechanism. Neuron, 1998, 20(4), 709-726.
[] [PMID: 9581763]
Poletti, S.; Aggio, V.; Hoogenboezem, T.A.; Ambrée, O.; de Wit, H.; Wijkhuijs, A.J.; Locatelli, C.; Colombo, C.; Arolt, V.; Drexhage, H.A.; Benedetti, F. Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and gray matter volume in bipolar disorder. Eur. Psychiatry, 2017, 40, 33-37.
[] [PMID: 27837670]
Dell’Osso, B.; D’Addario, C.; Carlotta Palazzo, M.; Benatti, B.; Camuri, G.; Galimberti, D.; Fenoglio, C.; Scarpini, E.; Di Francesco, A.; Maccarrone, M.; Altamura, A.C. Epigenetic modulation of BDNF gene: differences in DNA methylation between unipolar and bipolar patients. J. Affect. Disord., 2014, 166, 330-333.
[] [PMID: 25012449]
Tunca, Z.; Ozerdem, A.; Ceylan, D.; Yalçın, Y.; Can, G.; Resmi, H.; Akan, P.; Ergör, G.; Aydemir, O.; Cengisiz, C.; Kerim, D. Alterations in BDNF (brain derived neurotrophic factor) and GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor) serum levels in bipolar disorder: The role of lithium. J. Affect. Disord., 2014, 166, 193-200.
[] [PMID: 25012431]
Ricken, R.; Adli, M.; Lange, C.; Krusche, E.; Stamm, T.J.; Gaus, S.; Koehler, S.; Nase, S.; Bschor, T.; Richter, C.; Steinacher, B.; Heinz, A.; Rapp, M.A.; Borgwardt, S.; Hellweg, R.; Lang, U.E. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum concentrations in acute depressive patients increase during lithium augmentation of antidepressants. J. Clin. Psychopharmacol., 2013, 33(6), 806-809.
[] [PMID: 24018547]
Suwalska, A.; Sobieska, M.; Rybakowski, J.K. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in euthymic bipolar patients on prophylactic lithium therapy. Neuropsychobiology, 2010, 62(4), 229-234.
[] [PMID: 20714172]
Zimmermann, S.; Moelling, K. Phosphorylation and regulation of Raf by Akt (protein kinase B). Science, 1999, 286(5445), 1741-1744.
[] [PMID: 10576742]
Haditsch, U.; Anderson, M.P.; Freewoman, J.; Cord, B.; Babu, H.; Brakebusch, C.; Palmer, T.D. Neuronal Rac1 is required for learning-evoked neurogenesis. J. Neurosci., 2013, 33(30), 12229-12241.
[] [PMID: 23884931]
Listwak, S.J.; Rathore, P.; Herkenham, M. Minimal NF-κB activity in neurons. Neuroscience, 2013, 250, 282-299.
[] [PMID: 23872390]
Heckscher, E.S.; Fetter, R.D.; Marek, K.W.; Albin, S.D.; Davis, G.W. NF-kappaB, IkappaB, and IRAK control glutamate receptor density at the Drosophila NMJ. Neuron, 2007, 55(6), 859-873.
[] [PMID: 17880891]
Voytovych, H.; Kriváneková, L.; Ziemann, U. Lithium: a switch from LTD- to LTP-like plasticity in human cortex. Neuropharmacology, 2012, 63(2), 274-279.
[] [PMID: 22507665]
Liu, M.; Kay, J.C.; Shen, S.; Qiao, L.Y. Endogenous BDNF augments NMDA receptor phosphorylation in the spinal cord via PLCγ, PKC, and PI3K/Akt pathways during colitis. J. Neuroinflammation, 2015, 12, 151.
[] [PMID: 26289587]
Beaulieu, J.M. A role for Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3 as integrators of dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission in mental health. J. Psychiatry Neurosci., 2012, 37(1), 7-16.
[] [PMID: 21711983]
Machado-Vieira, R.; Zanetti, M.V.; Teixeira, A.L.; Uno, M.; Valiengo, L.L.; Soeiro-de-Souza, M.G.; Oba-Shinjo, S.M.; de Sousa, R.T.; Zarate, C.A., Jr; Gattaz, W.F.; Marie, S.K. Decreased AKT1/mTOR pathway mRNA expression in short-term bipolar disorder. Eur. Neuropsychopharmacol., 2015, 25(4), 468-473.
[] [PMID: 25726893]
Inkster, B.; Nichols, T.E.; Saemann, P.G.; Auer, D.P.; Holsboer, F.; Muglia, P.; Matthews, P.M. Association of GSK3beta polymorphisms with brain structural changes in major depressive disorder. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 2009, 66(7), 721-728.
[] [PMID: 19581563]
Blasi, G.; Napolitano, F.; Ursini, G.; Di Giorgio, A.; Caforio, G.; Taurisano, P.; Fazio, L.; Gelao, B.; Attrotto, M.T.; Colagiorgio, L.; Todarello, G.; Piva, F.; Papazacharias, A.; Masellis, R.; Mancini, M.; Porcelli, A.; Romano, R.; Rampino, A.; Quarto, T.; Giulietti, M.; Lipska, B.K.; Kleinman, J.E.; Popolizio, T.; Weinberger, D.R.; Usiello, A.; Bertolino, A. Association of GSK-3β genetic variation with GSK-3β expression, prefrontal cortical thickness, prefrontal physiology, and schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiatry, 2013, 170(8), 868-876.
[] [PMID: 23598903]
Szczepankiewicz, A.; Rybakowski, J.K.; Suwalska, A.; Skibinska, M.; Leszczynska-Rodziewicz, A.; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, M.; Czerski, P.M.; Hauser, J. Association study of the glycogen synthase kinase-3beta gene polymorphism with prophylactic lithium response in bipolar patients. World J. Biol. Psychiatry, 2006, 7(3), 158-161.
[] [PMID: 16861141]
Benedetti, F.; Poletti, S.; Radaelli, D.; Bernasconi, A.; Cavallaro, R.; Falini, A.; Lorenzi, C.; Pirovano, A.; Dallaspezia, S.; Locatelli, C.; Scotti, G.; Smeraldi, E. Temporal lobe grey matter volume in schizophrenia is associated with a genetic polymorphism influencing glycogen synthase kinase 3-β activity. Genes Brain Behav., 2010, 9(4), 365-371.
[] [PMID: 20113358]
Benedetti, F.; Poletti, S.; Radaelli, D.; Locatelli, C.; Pirovano, A.; Lorenzi, C.; Vai, B.; Bollettini, I.; Falini, A.; Smeraldi, E.; Colombo, C. Lithium and GSK-3β promoter gene variants influence cortical gray matter volumes in bipolar disorder. Psychopharmacology (Berl.), 2015, 232(7), 1325-1336.
[] [PMID: 25345732]
Benedetti, F.; Bollettini, I.; Barberi, I.; Radaelli, D.; Poletti, S.; Locatelli, C.; Pirovano, A.; Lorenzi, C.; Falini, A.; Colombo, C.; Smeraldi, E. Lithium and GSK3-β promoter gene variants influence white matter microstructure in bipolar disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology, 2013, 38(2), 313-327.
[] [PMID: 22990942]
Lin, Y.F.; Huang, M.C.; Liu, H.C. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β gene polymorphisms may be associated with bipolar I disorder and the therapeutic response to lithium. J. Affect. Disord., 2013, 147(1-3), 401-406.
[] [PMID: 23021822]
Benedetti, F.; Absinta, M.; Rocca, M.A.; Radaelli, D.; Poletti, S.; Bernasconi, A.; Dallaspezia, S.; Pagani, E.; Falini, A.; Copetti, M.; Colombo, C.; Comi, G.; Smeraldi, E.; Filippi, M. Tract-specific white matter structural disruption in patients with bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord., 2011, 13(4), 414-424.
[] [PMID: 21843281]
Gildengers, A.G.; Butters, M.A.; Aizenstein, H.J.; Marron, M.M.; Emanuel, J.; Anderson, S.J.; Weissfeld, L.A.; Becker, J.T.; Lopez, O.L.; Mulsant, B.H.; Reynolds, C.F., III Longer lithium exposure is associated with better white matter integrity in older adults with bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord., 2015, 17(3), 248-256.
[] [PMID: 25257942]
Clayton, E.L.; Sue, N.; Smillie, K.J.; O’Leary, T.; Bache, N.; Cheung, G.; Cole, A.R.; Wyllie, D.J.; Sutherland, C.; Robinson, P.J.; Cousin, M.A. Dynamin I phosphorylation by GSK3 controls activity-dependent bulk endocytosis of synaptic vesicles. Nat. Neurosci., 2010, 13(7), 845-851.
[] [PMID: 20526333]
Ishiguro, K.; Shiratsuchi, A.; Sato, S.; Omori, A.; Arioka, M.; Kobayashi, S.; Uchida, T.; Imahori, K. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta is identical to tau protein kinase I generating several epitopes of paired helical filaments. FEBS Lett., 1993, 325(3), 167-172.
[] [PMID: 7686508]
Goold, R.G.; Owen, R.; Gordon-Weeks, P.R. Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein 1B regulates the stability of microtubules in growth cones. J. Cell Sci., 1999, 112(Pt 19), 3373-3384.
[PMID: 10504342]
Sahar, S.; Zocchi, L.; Kinoshita, C.; Borrelli, E.; Sassone-Corsi, P. Regulation of BMAL1 protein stability and circadian function by GSK3beta-mediated phosphorylation. PLoS One, 2010, 5(1), e8561.
[] [PMID: 20049328]
Bollettini, I.; Melloni, E.M.; Aggio, V.; Poletti, S.; Lorenzi, C.; Pirovano, A.; Vai, B.; Dallaspezia, S.; Colombo, C.; Benedetti, F. Clock genes associate with white matter integrity in depressed bipolar patients. Chronobiol. Int., 2016, 20, 1-13.
[PMID: 27996307]
Jacoby, A.S.; Munkholm, K.; Vinberg, M.; Joaquim, H.G.; Talib, L.L.; Gattaz, W.F.; Kessing, L.V. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β in patients with bipolar I disorder: results from a prospective study. Bipolar Disord., 2016, 18(4), 334-341.
[] [PMID: 27325150]
Tsutsumi, T.; Terao, T.; Hatanaka, K.; Goto, S.; Hoaki, N.; Wang, Y. Association between affective temperaments and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glycogen synthase kinase 3β and Wnt signaling pathway gene polymorphisms in healthy subjects. J. Affect. Disord., 2011, 131(1-3), 353-357.
[] [PMID: 21115199]
Dousa, T.; Hechter, O. Lithium and brain adenyl cyclase. Lancet, 1970, 1(7651), 834-835.
[PMID: 4191451]
Neer, E.J. Interaction of soluble brain adenylate cyclase with manganese. J. Biol. Chem., 1979, 254(6), 2089-2096.
[PMID: 106055]
Hammonds, M.D.; Shim, S.S.; Feng, P.; Calabrese, J.R. Effects of subchronic lithium treatment on levels of BDNF, Bcl-2 and phospho-CREB in the rat hippocampus. Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 2007, 100(5), 356-359.
[] [PMID: 17448124]
Newman, M.E.; Belmaker, R.H. Effects of lithium in vitro and ex vivo on components of the adenylate cyclase system in membranes from the cerebral cortex of the rat. Neuropharmacology, 1987, 26(2-3), 211-217.
[] [PMID: 3035412]
Wiborg, O.; Krüger, T.; Jakobsen, S.N. Region-selective effects of long-term lithium and carbamazepine administration on cyclic AMP levels in rat brain. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 1999, 84(2), 88-93.
[] [PMID: 10068152]
Mühleisen, T.W.; Leber, M.; Schulze, T.G.; Strohmaier, J.; Degenhardt, F.; Treutlein, J.; Mattheisen, M.; Forstner, A.J.; Schumacher, J.; Breuer, R.; Meier, S.; Herms, S.; Hoffmann, P.; Lacour, A.; Witt, S.H.; Reif, A.; Müller-Myhsok, B.; Lucae, S.; Maier, W.; Schwarz, M.; Vedder, H.; Kammerer-Ciernioch, J.; Pfennig, A.; Bauer, M.; Hautzinger, M.; Moebus, S.; Priebe, L.; Czerski, P.M.; Hauser, J.; Lissowska, J.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N.; Brennan, P.; McKay, J.D.; Wright, A.; Mitchell, P.B.; Fullerton, J.M.; Schofield, P.R.; Montgomery, G.W.; Medland, S.E.; Gordon, S.D.; Martin, N.G.; Krasnow, V.; Chuchalin, A.; Babadjanova, G.; Pantelejeva, G.; Abramova, L.I.; Tiganov, A.S.; Polonikov, A.; Khusnutdinova, E.; Alda, M.; Grof, P.; Rouleau, G.A.; Turecki, G.; Laprise, C.; Rivas, F.; Mayoral, F.; Kogevinas, M.; Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, M.; Propping, P.; Becker, T.; Rietschel, M.; Nöthen, M.M.; Cichon, S. Genome-wide association study reveals two new risk loci for bipolar disorder. Nat. Commun., 2014, 5, 3339.
[] [PMID: 24618891]
Fang, X.; Yu, S.X.; Lu, Y.; Bast, R.C., Jr; Woodgett, J.R.; Mills, G.B. Phosphorylation and inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 by protein kinase A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2000, 97(22), 11960-11965.
[] [PMID: 11035810]
Davanzo, P.; Thomas, M.A.; Yue, K.; Oshiro, T.; Belin, T.; Strober, M.; McCracken, J. Decreased anterior cingulate myo-inositol/creatine spectroscopy resonance with lithium treatment in children with bipolar disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology, 2001, 24(4), 359-369.
[] [PMID: 11182531]
Patel, N.C.; DelBello, M.P.; Bryan, H.S.; Adler, C.M.; Kowatch, R.A.; Stanford, K.; Strakowski, S.M. Open-label lithium for the treatment of adolescents with bipolar depression. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 2006, 45(3), 289-297.
[] [PMID: 16540813]
Vitiello, B.; Behar, D.; Malone, R.; Delaney, M.A.; Ryan, P.J.; Simpson, G.M. Pharmacokinetics of lithium carbonate in children. J. Clin. Psychopharmacol., 1988, 8(5), 355-359.
[] [PMID: 3141484]
Malone, R.P.; Delaney, M.A.; Luebbert, J.F.; White, M.A.; Biesecker, K.A.; Cooper, T.B. The lithium test dose prediction method in aggressive children. Psychopharmacol. Bull., 1995, 31(2), 379-382.
[PMID: 7491395]
Cooper, T.B.; Bergner, P.E.; Simpson, G.M. The 24-hour serum lithium level as a prognosticator of dosage requirements. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1973, 130(5), 601-603.
[] [PMID: 4699934]
Findling, R.L.; Frazier, J.A.; Kafantaris, V.; Kowatch, R.; McClellan, J.; Pavuluri, M.; Sikich, L.; Hlastala, S.; Hooper, S.R.; Demeter, C.A.; Bedoya, D.; Brownstein, B.; Taylor-Zapata, P. The Collaborative Lithium Trials (CoLT): specific aims, methods, and implementation. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry Ment. Health, 2008, 2(1), 21.
[] [PMID: 18700004]
Findling, R.L.; Landersdorfer, C.B.; Kafantaris, V.; Pavuluri, M.; McNamara, N.K.; McClellan, J.; Frazier, J.A.; Sikich, L.; Kowatch, R.; Lingler, J.; Faber, J.; Taylor-Zapata, P.; Jusko, W.J. First-dose pharmacokinetics of lithium carbonate in children and adolescents. J. Clin. Psychopharmacol., 2010, 30(4), 404-410.
Landersdorfer, C.B.; Findling, R.L.; Frazier, J.A.; Kafantaris, V.; Kirkpatrick, C.M. Lithium in paediatric patients with bipolar disorder: implications for selection of dosage regimens via population pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics. Clin. Pharmacokinet., 2017, 56(1), 77-90.
[] [PMID: 27393139]
Fallah, E.; Arman, S.; Najafi, M.; Shayegh, B. Effect of tamoxifen and lithium on treatment of acute mania symptoms in children and adolescents. Iran. J. Child. Neurol., 2016, 10(2), 16-25.
[PMID: 27247580]
Young, R.C.; Biggs, J.T.; Ziegler, V.E.; Meyer, D.A. A rating scale for mania: reliability, validity and sensitivity. Br. J. Psychiatry, 1978, 133(5), 429-435.
[] [PMID: 728692]
Geller, B.; Luby, J.L.; Joshi, P.; Wagner, K.D.; Emslie, G.; Walkup, J.T.; Axelson, D.A.; Bolhofner, K.; Robb, A.; Wolf, D.V.; Riddle, M.A.; Birmaher, B.; Nusrat, N.; Ryan, N.D.; Vitiello, B.; Tillman, R.; Lavori, P. A randomized controlled trial of risperidone, lithium, or divalproex sodium for initial treatment of bipolar I disorder, manic or mixed phase, in children and adolescents. Arch. Gen. Psychiatr, 2015, 69(5), 515-528.
Salpekar, J.A.; Joshi, P.T.; Axelson, D.A.; Reinblatt, S.P.; Yenokyan, G.; Sanyal, A.; Walkup, J.T.; Vitiello, B.; Luby, J.L.; Wagner, K.D.; Nusrat, N.; Riddle, M.A. Depression and suicidality outcomes in the treatment of early age mania study. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 2015, 54(12), 999-1007.e4.
[] [PMID: 26598475]
Walkup, J.T.; Wagner, K.D.; Miller, L.; Yenokyan, G.; Luby, J.L.; Joshi, P.T.; Axelson, D.A.; Robb, A.; Salpekar, J.A.; Wolf, D.; Sanyal, A.; Birmaher, B.; Vitiello, B.; Riddle, M.A. Treatment of early-age mania: Outcomes for partial and nonresponders to initial treatmenT. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 2015, 54(12), 1008-1019.
[] [PMID: 26598476]
Findling, R.L.; Robb, A.; McNamara, N.K.; Pavuluri, M.N.; Kafantaris, V.; Scheffer, R.; Frazier, J.A.; Rynn, M.; DelBello, M.; Kowatch, R.A.; Rowles, B.M.; Lingler, J.; Martz, K.; Anand, R.; Clemons, T.E.; Taylor-Zapata, P. Lithium in the acute treatment of bipolar I disorder: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Pediatrics, 2015, 136(5), 885-894.
[] [PMID: 26459650]
Findling, R.L.; Kafantaris, V.; Pavuluri, M.; McNamara, N.K.; McClellan, J.; Frazier, J.A.; Sikich, L.; Kowatch, R.; Lingler, J.; Faber, J.; Rowles, B.M.; Clemons, T.E.; Taylor-Zapata, P. Dosing strategies for lithium monotherapy in children and adolescents with bipolar I disorder. J. Child Adolesc. Psychopharmacol., 2011, 21(3), 195-205.
[] [PMID: 21663422]
Findling, R.L.; Kafantaris, V.; Pavuluri, M.; McNamara, N.K.; Frazier, J.A.; Sikich, L.; Kowatch, R.; Rowles, B.M.; Clemons, T.E.; Taylor-Zapata, P. Post-acute effectiveness of lithium in pediatric bipolar I disorder. J. Child Adolesc. Psychopharmacol., 2013, 23(2), 80-90.
[] [PMID: 23510444]
Findling, R.L.; McNamara, N.K.; Youngstrom, E.A.; Stansbrey, R.; Gracious, B.L.; Reed, M.D.; Calabrese, J.R. Double-blind 18-month trial of lithium versus divalproex maintenance treatment in pediatric bipolar disorder. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 2005, 44(5), 409-417.
[] [PMID: 15843762]
Kafantaris, V.; Coletti, D.; Dicker, R.; Padula, G.; Kane, J.M. Lithium treatment of acute mania in adolescents: a large open trial. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 2003, 42(9), 1038-1045.
[] [PMID: 12960703]
Kafantaris, V.; Coletti, D.J.; Dicker, R.; Padula, G.; Pleak, R.R.; Alvir, J.M. Lithium treatment of acute mania in adolescents: a placebo-controlled discontinuation study. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 2004, 43(8), 984-993.
[] [PMID: 15266193]
Kafantaris, V.; Dicker, R.; Coletti, D.J.; Kane, J.M. Adjunctive antipsychotic treatment is necessary for adolescents with psychotic mania. J. Child Adolesc. Psychopharmacol., 2001, 11(4), 409-413.
[] [PMID: 11838823]
Kowatch, R.A.; Suppes, T.; Carmody, T.J.; Bucci, J.P.; Hume, J.H.; Kromelis, M.; Emslie, G.J.; Weinberg, W.A.; Rush, A.J. Effect size of lithium, divalproex sodium, and carbamazepine in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 2000, 39(6), 713-720.
[] [PMID: 10846305]
Geller, B.; Cooper, T.B.; Sun, K.; Zimerman, B.; Frazier, J.; Williams, M.; Heath, J. Double-blind and placebo-controlled study of lithium for adolescent bipolar disorders with secondary substance dependency. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 1998, 37(2), 171-178.
[] [PMID: 9473913]
Strober, M.; DeAntonio, M.; Schmidt-Lackner, S.; Freeman, R.; Lampert, C.; Diamond, J. Early childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder predicts poorer response to acute lithium therapy in adolescent mania. J. Affect. Disord., 1998, 51(2), 145-151.
[] [PMID: 10743847]
Strober, M.; Morrell, W.; Lampert, C.; Burroughs, J. Relapse following discontinuation of lithium maintenance therapy in adolescents with bipolar I illness: a naturalistic study. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1990, 147(4), 457-461.
[] [PMID: 2107763]
Dickstein, D.P.; Towbin, K.E.; Van Der Veen, J.W.; Rich, B.A.; Brotman, M.A.; Knopf, L.; Onelio, L.; Pine, D.S.; Leibenluft, E. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of lithium in youths with severe mood dysregulation. J. Child Adolesc. Psychopharmacol., 2009, 19(1), 61-73.
[] [PMID: 19232024]
Leibenluft, E.; Charney, D.S.; Towbin, K.E.; Bhangoo, R.K.; Pine, D.S. Defining clinical phenotypes of juvenile mania. Am. J. Psychiatry, 2003, 160(3), 430-437.
[] [PMID: 12611821]
Geller, B.; Cooper, T.B.; Zimerman, B.; Frazier, J.; Williams, M.; Heath, J.; Warner, K. Lithium for prepubertal depressed children with family history predictors of future bipolarity: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J. Affect. Disord., 1998, 51(2), 165-175.
[] [PMID: 10743849]
Strober, M.; Freeman, R.; Rigali, J.; Schmidt, S.; Diamond, R. The pharmacotherapy of depressive illness in adolescence: II. Effects of lithium augmentation in nonresponders to imipramine. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 1992, 31(1), 16-20.
[] [PMID: 1537769]
Hamilton, M. A rating scale for depression. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 1960, 23, 56-62.
[] [PMID: 14399272]
Malone, R.P.; Delaney, M.A.; Luebbert, J.F.; Cater, J.; Campbell, M. A double-blind placebo-controlled study of lithium in hospitalized aggressive children and adolescents with conduct disorder. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 2000, 57(7), 649-654.
[] [PMID: 10891035]
Campbell, M.; Adams, P.B.; Small, A.M.; Kafantaris, V.; Silva, R.R.; Shell, J.; Perry, R.; Overall, J.E. Lithium in hospitalized aggressive children with conduct disorder: a double-blind and placebo-controlled study. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 1995, 34(4), 445-453.
[] [PMID: 7751258]
Yudofsky, S.C.; Silver, J.M.; Jackson, W.; Endicott, J.; Williams, D. The Overt Aggression Scale for the objective rating of verbal and physical aggression. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1986, 143(1), 35-39.
[] [PMID: 3942284]
Malone, R.P.; Luebbert, J.; Pena-Ariet, M.; Biesecker, K.; Delaney, M.A. The Overt Aggression Scale in a study of lithium in aggressive conduct disorder. Psychopharmacol. Bull., 1994, 30(2), 215-218.
[PMID: 7831458]
Rifkin, A.; Karajgi, B.; Dicker, R.; Perl, E.; Boppana, V.; Hasan, N.; Pollack, S. Lithium treatment of conduct disorders in adolescents. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1997, 154(4), 554-555.
[] [PMID: 9090346]
Walker, M.K.; Sprague, R.L.; Sleator, E.K.; Ullmann, R.K. Effects of methylphenidate hydrochloride on the subjective reporting of mood in children with attention deficit disorder. Issues Ment. Health Nurs., 1988, 9(4), 373-385.
[] [PMID: 3229984]
Campbell, M.; Small, A.M.; Green, W.H.; Jennings, S.J.; Perry, R.; Bennett, W.G.; Anderson, L. Behavioral efficacy of haloperidol and lithium carbonate. A comparison in hospitalized aggressive children with conduct disorder. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 1984, 41(7), 650-656.
[] [PMID: 6428371]
Carlson, G.A.; Rapport, M.D.; Pataki, C.S.; Kelly, K.L. Lithium in hospitalized children at 4 and 8 weeks: mood, behavior and cognitive effects. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry, 1992, 33(2), 411-425.
[] [PMID: 1564083]
Arnulf, I.; Zeitzer, J.M.; File, J.; Farber, N.; Mignot, E. Kleine-Levin syndrome: a systematic review of 186 cases in the literature. Brain, 2005, 128(Pt 12), 2763-2776.
[] [PMID: 16230322]
Poppe, M.; Friebel, D.; Reuner, U.; Todt, H.; Koch, R.; Heubner, G. The Kleine-Levin syndrome - effects of treatment with lithium -. Neuropediatrics, 2003, 34(3), 113-119.
[] [PMID: 12910433]
Leu-Semenescu, S.; Le Corvec, T.; Groos, E.; Lavault, S.; Golmard, J.L.; Arnulf, I. Lithium therapy in Kleine-Levin syndrome: An open-label, controlled study in 130 patients. Neurology, 2015, 85(19), 1655-1662.
[] [PMID: 26453648]
Li, Y.; Zhao, X. Concise review: Fragile X proteins in stem cell maintenance and differentiation. Stem Cells, 2014, 32(7), 1724-1733.
[] [PMID: 24648324]
Portis, S.; Giunta, B.; Obregon, D.; Tan, J. The role of glycogen synthase kinase-3 signaling in neurodevelopment and fragile X syndrome. Int. J. Physiol. Pathophysiol. Pharmacol., 2012, 4(3), 140-148.
[PMID: 23071871]
Liu, Z.; Smith, C.B. Lithium: a promising treatment for fragile X syndrome. ACS Chem. Neurosci., 2014, 5(6), 477-483.
Berry-Kravis, E.; Sumis, A.; Hervey, C.; Nelson, M.; Porges, S.W.; Weng, N.; Weiler, I.J.; Greenough, W.T. Open-label treatment trial of lithium to target the underlying defect in fragile X syndrome J. Dev. Behav. Pediatr., 2008, 5(29), 4-293-302.
Aman, M. Aberrant behaviour checklist – community east aurora., 1994.
Sparrow, S.S.; Cicchetti, D.V. Diagnostic uses of the vineland adaptive behavior scales. J. Pediatr. Psychol., 1985, 10(2), 215-225.
[] [PMID: 4020603]
Weng, N.; Weiler, I.J.; Sumis, A.; Berry-Kravis, E.; Greenough, W.T. Early-phase ERK activation as a biomarker for metabolic status in fragile X syndrome. Am. J. Med. Genet. B. Neuropsychiatr. Genet., 2008, 147B(7), 1253-1257.
[] [PMID: 18452182]
Focosi, D.; Azzarà, A.; Kast, R.E.; Carulli, G.; Petrini, M. Lithium and hematology: established and proposed uses. J. Leukoc. Biol., 2009, 85(1), 20-28.
[] [PMID: 18809733]
Steinherz, P.G.; Rosen, G.; Ghavimi, F.; Wang, Y.; Miller, D.R. The effect of lithium carbonate on leukopenia after chemotherapy. J. Pediatr., 1980, 96(5), 923-927.
[] [PMID: 6767826]
Steinherz, P.G.; Rosen, G.; Miller, D.R. Effect of lithium carbonate plus oxymetholone vs. lithium alone on chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression. Am. J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol., 1983, 5(1), 39-44.
[PMID: 6407352]
Chan, H.S.; Freedman, M.H.; Saunders, E.F. Lithium therapy of children with chronic neutropenia. Am. J. Med., 1981, 70(5), 1073-1077.
[] [PMID: 7234874]
Mattai, A.; Fung, L.; Bakalar, J.; Overman, G.; Tossell, J.; Miller, R.; Rapoport, J.; Gogtay, N. Adjunctive use of lithium carbonate for the management of neutropenia in clozapine-treated children. Hum. Psychopharmacol., 2009, 24(7), 584-589.
[] [PMID: 19743394]
Masi, G.; Pisano, S.; Pfanner, C.; Milone, A.; Manfredi, A. Quetiapine monotherapy in adolescents with bipolar disorder comorbid with conduct disorder. J. Child Adolesc. Psychopharmacol., 2013, 23(8), 568-571.
[] [PMID: 24138010]
Masi, G.; Milone, A.; Stawinoga, A.; Veltri, S.; Pisano, S. Efficacy and safety of risperidone and quetiapine in adolescents with bipolar II disorder comorbid with conduct disorder. J. Clin. Psychopharmacol., 2015, 35(5), 587-590.
[] [PMID: 26226481]
Kirino, E. Profile of aripiprazole in the treatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. Adolesc. Health Med. Ther., 2014, 5, 211-221.
[] [PMID: 25473324]
Brent, D.A.; Greenhill, L.L.; Compton, S.; Emslie, G.; Wells, K.; Walkup, J.T.; Vitiello, B.; Bukstein, O.; Stanley, B.; Posner, K.; Kennard, B.D.; Cwik, M.F.; Wagner, A.; Coffey, B.; March, J.S.; Riddle, M.; Goldstein, T.; Curry, J.; Barnett, S.; Capasso, L.; Zelazny, J.; Hughes, J.; Shen, S.; Gugga, S.S.; Turner, J.B. The Treatment of Adolescent Suicide Attempters study (TASA): predictors of suicidal events in an open treatment trial. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 2009, 48(10), 987-996.
[] [PMID: 19730274]
Vitiello, B.; Brent, D.A.; Greenhill, L.L.; Emslie, G.; Wells, K.; Walkup, J.T.; Stanley, B.; Bukstein, O.; Kennard, B.D.; Compton, S.; Coffey, B.; Cwik, M.F.; Posner, K.; Wagner, A.; March, J.S.; Riddle, M.; Goldstein, T.; Curry, J.; Capasso, L.; Mayes, T.; Shen, S.; Gugga, S.S.; Turner, J.B.; Barnett, S.; Zelazny, J. Depressive symptoms and clinical status during the Treatment of Adolescent Suicide Attempters (TASA) Study. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 2009, 48(10), 997-1004.
[] [PMID: 20854770]
Masi, G.; Milone, A.; Manfredi, A.; Pari, C.; Paziente, A.; Millepiedi, S. Effectiveness of lithium in children and adolescents with conduct disorder: a retrospective naturalistic study. CNS Drugs, 2009, 23(1), 59-69.
[] [PMID: 19062775]
Masi, G.; Favilla, L.; Millepiedi, S. The Kleine-Levin syndrome as a neuropsychiatric disorder: a case report. Psychiatry, 2000, 63(1), 93-100.
[] [PMID: 10855764]
Masi, G.; Liboni, F. Management of schizophrenia in children and adolescents: focus on pharmacotherapy. Drugs, 2011, 71(2), 179-208.
[] [PMID: 21275445]
Costa, A.; Antonaci, F.; Ramusino, M.C.; Nappi, G. The neuropharmacology of cluster headache and other trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias. Curr. Neuropharmacol., 2015, 13(3), 304-323.
[] [PMID: 26411963]
Siegel, M.; Beresford, C.A.; Bunker, M.; Verdi, M.; Vishnevetsky, D.; Karlsson, C.; Teer, O.; Stedman, A.; Smith, K.A. Preliminary investigation of lithium for mood disorder symptoms in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. J. Child Adolesc. Psychopharmacol., 2014, 24(7), 399-402.
Correll, C.U.; Manu, P.; Olshanskiy, V.; Napolitano, B.; Kane, J.M.; Malhotra, A.K. Cardiometabolic risk of second-generation antipsychotic medications during first-time use in children and adolescents. JAMA, 2009, 302(16), 1765-1773.
Rafaniello, C.; Pozzi, M.; Pisano, S.; Ferrajolo, C.; Bertella, S.; Sportiello, L.; Carnovale, C.; Sullo, M.G.; Cattaneo, D.; Gentili, M.; Rizzo, R.; Pascotto, A.; Mani, E.; Villa, L.; Riccio, M.P.; Sperandeo, S.; Bernardini, R.; Bravaccio, C.; Clementi, E.; Molteni, M.; Rossi, F.; Radice, S.; Capuano, A. Second generation antipsychotics in ‘real-life’ paediatric patients. Adverse drug reactions and clinical outcomes of drug switch. Expert Opin. Drug Saf., 2016, (15(sup2)), 1-8.
Pisano, S.; Gritti, A.; Catone, G.; Pascotto, A.A. Antipsychotic-induced dyslipidemia treated with omega 3 fatty acid supplement in an 11-year-old psychotic child: a 1-year follow-up. J. Child Adolesc. Psychopharmacol., 2013, 23(2), 139-141.
Pisano, S.; Catone, G.; Veltri, S.; Lanzara, V.; Pozzi, M.; Clementi, E.; Iuliano, R.; Riccio, M.P.; Radice, S.; Molteni, M.; Capuano, A.; Gritti, A.; Coppola, G.; Milone, A.; Bravaccio, C.; Masi, G. Update on the safety of second generation antipsychotics in youths: a call for collaboration among paediatricians and child psychiatrists. Ital. J. Pediatr., 2016, 42(1), 51.
[] [PMID: 27209326]

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy