Primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is the main cause of hypercalcemia and the most common parathyroid glands disease. The diagnosis is easy in patients with hypercalcemia and elevated PTH serum level. Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (PTx) represents the treatment of choice for symptomatic patients, leading to several advantages, including immediate normalization of hypercalcemia and significant improvement of bone mineral density, cardiovascular dysfunctions, neuropsychological symptoms and quality of life. Secondary and tertiary HPT are relatively common complications in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or advanced kidney failure, and in kidney transplant recipients who did not achieve complete calcium/phosphate metabolism normalization, respectively. The drugs available for patients with secondary HPT, and to treat hyperphosphatemia include non-calcium-containing phosphate binder, calcitriol analogues, calcimimetic agents, or a combination of two or more drugs. Although recent studies report that PTx significantly improves survival also in patients with CKD and severe secondary HPT, the indications for surgery are not yet well established. Subtotal or total PTx with or without autotransplantation are the surgical options for treating all patients with secondary HPT. Total PTx leads to a faster reduction in serum calcium level and normalization of PTH, but the risk of hypoparathyroidism is higher than after subtotal PTx. Further studies are needed to confirm the usefulness of the drugs currently recommended, and others will have to be tested in the near future.