Mini-Review Article

Non-Canonical Targets of MicroRNAs: Role in Transcriptional Regulation, Disease Pathogenesis and Potential for Therapeutic Targets

In Press, (this is not the final "Version of Record"). Available online 22 January, 2024
Author(s): Aishwarya Ray, Abhisek Sarkar, Sounak Banerjee and Kaushik Biswas*
Published on: 22 January, 2024

DOI: 10.2174/0122115366278651240105071533

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MicroRNAs are a class of regulatory, non-coding small ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules found in eukaryotes. Dysregulated expression of microRNAs can lead to downregulation or upregulation of their target gene. In general, microRNAs bind with the Argonaute protein and its interacting partners to form a silencing complex. This silencing complex binds with fully or partial complementary sequences in the 3’-UTR of their cognate target mRNAs and leads to degradation of the transcripts or translational inhibition, respectively. However, recent developments point towards the ability of these microRNAs to bind to the promoters, enhancers or coding sequences, leading to upregulation of their target genes. This review briefly summarizes the various non-canonical binding sites of microRNA and their regulatory roles in various diseased conditions.

Keywords: microRNA, non-canonical targets, gene expression, promotor, enhancer, coding sequence, 5’ UTR

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