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Recent Advances in Anti-Infective Drug Discovery

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 2772-4344
ISSN (Online): 2772-4352

Research Article

Formulation and Optimization of Solid Lipid Nanoparticle-based Gel for Dermal Delivery of Linezolid using Taguchi Design

Author(s): Iti Chauhan* and Lubhan Singh

Volume 19, Issue 4, 2024

Published on: 17 January, 2024

Page: [322 - 347] Pages: 26

DOI: 10.2174/0127724344280309240103062810

Price: $65

Abstract

Background: Linezolid (LNZ) is a synthetic oxazolidinone antibiotic approved for the treatment of uncomplicated and complicated skin and soft tissue infections caused by gram-positive bacteria. Typically, LNZ is administered orally or intravenously in most cases. However, prolonged therapy is associated with various side effects and lifethreatening complications. Cutaneous application of LNZ will assist in reducing the dose, hence minimizing the unwanted side/adverse effects associated with oral administration. Dermal delivery provides an alternative route of administration, facilitating a local and sustained concentration of the antimicrobial at the site of infection.

Objective: The current research work aimed to formulate solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) based gel for dermal delivery of LNZ in the management of uncomplicated skin and soft tissue infections to maximise its benefits and minimise the side effects.

Methods: SLNs were prepared by high-shear homogenisation and ultrasound method using Dynasan 114 as solid lipid and Pluronic F-68 as surfactant. The effect of surfactant concentration, drug-to-lipid ratio, and sonication time was investigated on particle size, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency using the Taguchi design. The main effect plot of means and signal-to-noise ratio were generated to determine the optimized formulation. The optimized batch was formulated into a gel, and ex vivo permeation study, in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity were conducted.

Results: The optimised process parameters to achieve results were 2% surfactant concentration, a drug-to-lipid ratio of 1:2, and 360 s of sonication time. The optimized batch was 206.3± 0.17nm in size with a surface charge of -24.4± 4.67mV and entrapment efficiency of 80.90 ± 0.45%. SLN-based gel demonstrated anomalous transport with an 85.43% in vitro drug release. The gel showed a 5.03 ± 0.15 cm zone of inhibition while evaluated for in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Ex vivo skin permeation studies demonstrated 20.308% drug permeation and 54.96% cutaneous deposition. In-vivo results showed a significant reduction in colony-forming units in the group treated with LNZ SLN-based gel.

Conclusion: Ex vivo studies ascertain the presence of the drug at the desired site and improve therapy. In vivo results demonstrated the ability of SLN-based gel to significantly reduce the number of bacteria in the stripped infection model. The utilization of SLN as an LNZ carrier holds significant promise in dermal delivery.

Keywords: Solid lipid nanoparticle, linezolid, skin and soft tissue infection, dermal delivery, taguchi design, tape-stripped skin infection model.

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