Generic placeholder image

Current Vascular Pharmacology

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1570-1611
ISSN (Online): 1875-6212

Mini-Review Article

The Effect of Menopause and Menopausal Hormone Therapy on the Risk of Peripheral Artery Disease

Author(s): Panagiotis Anagnostis*, Dimitri P. Mikhailidis, Ales Blinc, Mojca Jensterle, Mateja K. Ježovnik, Gerit-Holger Schernthaner, Pier Luigi Antignani, Katica Bajuk Studen, Miso Šabović and Pavel Poredos

Volume 21, Issue 5, 2023

Published on: 27 September, 2023

Page: [293 - 296] Pages: 4

DOI: 10.2174/0115701611263345230919122907

Price: $65

Abstract

Peripheral artery disease (PAD), defined as lower extremity arterial disease, constitutes an underestimated aspect of the menopause-associated risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Accumulation of ASCVD risk factors, such as atherogenic dyslipidaemia, diabetes, and arterial hypertension, after the transition to menopause may contribute to atherosclerotic plaque formation in peripheral arteries. However, inconsistency exists among studies as to whether transition to menopause increases the risk of PAD, although early menopause (<45 years) or premature ovarian insufficiency may accelerate peripheral atherosclerotic plaque formation. Menopausal hormone therapy may decrease the risk of PAD if administered early (i.e., within the first 5-6 years after last menstruation), whereas it has no effect in women with established ASCVD.

Keywords: Menopause, premature ovarian insufficiency, menopausal hormone therapy, peripheral artery disease.

Next »
Graphical Abstract
[1]
Anagnostis P, Lambrinoudaki I, Stevenson JC, Goulis DG. Menopause-associated risk of cardiovascular disease. Endocr Connect 2022; 11(4): e210537.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EC-21-0537] [PMID: 35258483]
[2]
Anagnostis P, Antza C, Trakatelli C, Lambrinoudaki I, Goulis DG, Kotsis V. The effect of menopause on lipoprotein (a) concentrations: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Maturitas 2023; 167: 39-45.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2022.09.012] [PMID: 36302338]
[3]
Suzuki H, Kondo K. Pulse wave velocity in postmenopausal women. Pulse 2013; 1(1): 4-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000348416] [PMID: 26587424]
[4]
Harlow SD, Gass M, Hall JE, et al. Executive summary of the stages of reproductive aging workshop + 10: Addressing the unfinished agenda of staging reproductive aging. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012; 97(4): 1159-68.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2011-3362] [PMID: 22344196]
[5]
Anagnostis P, Christou K, Artzouchaltzi AM, et al. Early menopause and premature ovarian insufficiency are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Endocrinol 2019; 180(1): 41-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EJE-18-0602] [PMID: 30400047]
[6]
Anagnostis P, Theocharis P, Lallas K, et al. Early menopause is associated with increased risk of arterial hypertension: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Maturitas 2020; 135: 74-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2020.03.006] [PMID: 32252968]
[7]
Robeva R, Mladenović D, Vesković M, et al. The interplay between metabolic dysregulations and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in women after menopause. Maturitas 2021; 151: 22-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2021.06.012] [PMID: 34446275]
[8]
Muka T, Oliver-Williams C, Kunutsor S, et al. Association of age at onset of menopause and time since onset of menopause with cardiovascular outcomes, intermediate vascular traits, and all-cause mortality. JAMA Cardiol 2016; 1(7): 767-76.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2016.2415] [PMID: 27627190]
[9]
Aronow WS. Peripheral arterial disease in the elderly. Clin Interv Aging 2007; 2(4): 645-54.
[PMID: 18225466]
[10]
Poredoš P, Schernthaner GH, Blinc A, et al. Endocrine disorders and peripheral arterial disease: A series of reviews. Curr Vasc Pharmacol 2023; 21(3): 147-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570161121666230516141319] [PMID: 37194233]
[11]
Buso G, Darioli R, Calanca L, et al. In postmenopausal women, lower limb peripheral arterial disease, assessed by ankle-brachial index, may be a strong predictor of cardiovascular risk. Eur J Intern Med 2022; 99: 63-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2022.02.002] [PMID: 35135705]
[12]
Matsubara K, Harada H, Ando N, et al. Estrogen deficiency attenuates neovascularization in a murine model of hindlimb ischemia. J Surg Res 2012; 178(2): 1022-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2012.04.067] [PMID: 22632940]
[13]
Cortés YI, Parikh N, Allison MA, et al. Women’s reproductive history and pre-clinical peripheral arterial disease in late life: The san diego population study. J Womens Health 2019; 28(8): 1105-15.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2018.7080] [PMID: 30508411]
[14]
Honigberg MC, Zekavat SM, Aragam K, et al. Association of premature natural and surgical menopause with incident cardiovascular disease. JAMA 2019; 322(24): 2411-21.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.19191] [PMID: 31738818]
[15]
Schreinlechner M, Noflatscher M, Reinstadler SJ, et al. Early onset of menopause is associated with increased peripheral atherosclerotic plaque volume and progression. Atherosclerosis 2020; 297: 25-31.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2020.01.023] [PMID: 32062136]
[16]
Anagnostis P, Paschou SA, Katsiki N, Krikidis D, Lambrinoudaki I, Goulis DG. Menopausal hormone therapy and cardiovascular risk: Where are we now? Curr Vasc Pharmacol 2019; 17(6): 564-72.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570161116666180709095348] [PMID: 29984659]
[17]
Prelevic GM, Kwong P, Byrne DJ, Jagroop IA, Ginsburg J, Mikhailidis DP. A cross-sectional study of the effects of hormon replacement therapy on the cardiovascular disease risk profile in healthy postmenopausal women. Fertil Steril 2002; 77(5): 945-51.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0015-0282(02)03078-9] [PMID: 12009348]
[18]
Spencer CP, Godsland IF, Cooper AJ, Ross D, Whitehead MI, Stevenson JC. Effects of oral and transdermal 17β-estradiol with cyclical oral norethindrone acetate on insulin sensitivity, secretion, and elimination in postmenopausal women. Metabolism 2000; 49(6): 742-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/meta.2000.6238] [PMID: 10877199]
[19]
Hsia J, Criqui MH, Herrington DM, et al. Conjugated equine estrogens and peripheral arterial disease risk: The Women’s Health Initiative. Am Heart J 2006; 152(1): 170-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2005.09.005] [PMID: 16824852]
[20]
Stöckl D, Döring A, Thorand B, et al. Reproductive factors and its association with peripheral arterial disease in women aged 52–81 years: The KORA F4 study. Atherosclerosis 2013; 228(1): 224-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2013.01.035] [PMID: 23466069]
[21]
Rockman CB, Maldonado TS, Jacobowitz GR, Adelman MA, Riles TS. Hormone replacement therapy is associated with a decreased prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in postmenopausal women. Ann Vasc Surg 2012; 26(3): 411-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2011.10.012] [PMID: 22285341]
[22]
Westendorp ICD, in’t Veld BA, Grobbee DE, et al. Hormone replacement therapy and peripheral arterial disease: The Rotterdam study. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160(16): 2498-502.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.160.16.2498] [PMID: 10979062]
[23]
Hsia J, Simon JA, Lin F, et al. Peripheral arterial disease in randomized trial of estrogen with progestin in women with coronary heart disease: The heart and estrogen/progestin replacement study. Circulation 2000; 102(18): 2228-32.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.102.18.2228] [PMID: 11056097]
[24]
Grady D, Herrington D, Bittner V, et al. Cardiovascular disease outcomes during 6.8 years of hormone therapy: Heart and estrogen/progestin replacement study follow-up (HERS II). JAMA 2002; 288(1): 49-57.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.288.1.49] [PMID: 12090862]
[25]
Aboyans V, Ricco JB, Bartelink MLEL, et al. 2017 ESC guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral arterial diseases, in collaboration with the european society for vascular surgery (ESVS). Eur Heart J 2018; 39(9): 763-816.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehx095] [PMID: 28886620]
[26]
Mach F, Baigent C, Catapano AL, et al. 2019 ESC/EAS Guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias: Lipid modification to reduce cardiovascular risk. Eur Heart J 2020; 41(1): 111-88.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehz455] [PMID: 31504418]
[27]
Chen GC, Arthur R, Mossavar-Rahmani Y, et al. Adherence to recommended eating patterns is associated with lower risk of peripheral arterial disease: results from the women’s health initiative. Hypertension 2021; 78(2): 447-55.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.121.17432] [PMID: 34176290]
[28]
Davies MJ, Aroda VR, Collins BS, et al. Management of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes, 2022. A consensus report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetologia 2022; 65(12): 1925-66.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-022-05787-2] [PMID: 36151309]
[29]
Anagnostis P, Stevenson JC. Cardiovascular health and the menopause, metabolic health. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2023; 101781.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beem.2023.101781] [PMID: 37183085]

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy