Background: Diabetes is one of the most common diseases and is a major public health problem worldwide. It is also the leading high-risk cause of death and disability in the world. To avoid further complications due to diabetes, regular monitoring of blood glucose levels is very important. All the current methods used to measure blood glucose are invasive, which require finger piercing, and this invasive method is more painful and more likely to cause infection. However, patients need to be directed toward developing non-invasive techniques to relieve pain.
Objective: In this paper, the author uses non-invasive techniques that utilize near infrared sensors for glucose level determination from the fingertip without requiring needles and test strips.
Methods: Near Infrared (NIR) optical signal is transmitted through one side of the fingertip and then received from the other side, through which blood glucose’s molecular count is predicted by analyzing the variation in the received signal’s intensity after its reflection. The signal is then filtered and amplified before going into the microcontroller to be displayed on an LCD. The glucose readings are also sent to a phone via Wi-Fi and displayed through an Android application using IoT.
Results: The designed hardware is calibrated with regression analysis by a pre-calibrated conventional blood sugar machine. The derived equation is being set concerning voltage vs. blood sugar measurement. Finally, the device is being tested with 5 individual subjects with 10 reading each.
Conclusion: The device is designed to measure blood glucose in a non-invasive way, and by integrating the IoT into the device, you have the freedom to measure your blood glucose remotely, except that it is available over the internet. If so, the same works fine.
Keywords: Diabetes, blood glucose, noninvasive techniques, near-infrared, iot, mobile application.
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