Background: Diabetes mellitus is the most common health problem in the world. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) exposed great intrinsic anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activities. Chitosan is an oligosaccharide biopolymer with a great ability to lower hyperglycemia, and ascorbic acid is a water-soluble vitamin with strong antioxidant activity.
Objective: The present study aimed to estimate AgNPs/chitosan/ascorbic acid nanocomposite (Ag- NCs) anti-diabetic properties in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Methods: Eighteen male Wistar albino rats were divided into three main groups (6 rats/group); control, diabetic, and Ag-NCs groups. Control group: after a single dose of citrate buffer at PH 4.5 (0.1 mol/L, i.p), the rats orally received 1 ml distilled water daily for four weeks. The diabetic model was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, i.p) for type 1 diabetes and the rats orally received 1 ml distilled water daily for four weeks. The diabetic group was treated orally with Ag-NCs (0.25 mg/Kg body weight) daily for four weeks.
Results: AgNPs/chitosan/ascorbic acid nanocomposite group showed a reduction in the concentrations of glucose, NO, MDA, LDL, and the activities of AST, ALT, ALP, and GGT. At the same time, it caused a general increase in insulin, albumin, TB, TC, TG, HDL, CAT, SOD, and GSH levels. The histopathological investigation illustrated regeneration of damaged pancreatic beta cells and a clear improvement in the hepatic architecture.
Conclusion: The suggested mechanism of action for Ag-NCs in decreasing diabetic complications in the liver involved two pathways; the hypoglycemic activity and the antioxidant role of AgNPs, chitosan, and ascorbic acid.
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