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Current Diabetes Reviews


ISSN (Print): 1573-3998
ISSN (Online): 1875-6417

Review Article

Diagnostic Tools, Biomarkers, and Treatments in Diabetic polyneuropathy and Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy

Author(s): Gidon J. Bönhof, Christian Herder and Dan Ziegler*

Volume 18, Issue 5, 2022

Published on: 12 April, 2021

Article ID: e120421192781 Pages: 25

DOI: 10.2174/1573399817666210412123740

Price: $65


The various manifestations of diabetic neuropathy, including distal symmetric sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN), are among the most prevalent chronic complications of diabetes. Major clinical complications of diabetic neuropathies, such as neuropathic pain, chronic foot ulcers, and orthostatic hypotension, are associated with considerable morbidity, increased mortality, and diminished quality of life. Despite the substantial individual and socioeconomic burden, the strategies to diagnose and treat diabetic neuropathies remain insufficient. This review provides an overview of the current clinical aspects and recent advances in exploring local and systemic biomarkers of both DSPN and CAN assessed in human studies (such as biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress) for better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and for improving early detection. Current therapeutic options for DSPN are (I) causal treatment, including lifestyle modification, optimal glycemic control, and multifactorial risk intervention, (II) pharmacotherapy derived from pathogenetic concepts, and (III) analgesic treatment against neuropathic pain. Recent advances in each category are discussed, including non-pharmacological approaches, such as electrical stimulation. Finally, the current therapeutic options for cardiovascular autonomic complications are provided. These insights should contribute to a broader understanding of the various manifestations of diabetic neuropathies from both the research and clinical perspectives.

Keywords: Polyneuropathy, peripheral neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy, CAN, neuropathic pain, inflammation, therapy, exercise.

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