Page: i-i (1)
Author: Atta ur-Rahman, M. Iqbal Choudhary, Allen B. Reitz and Cheryl P. Kordik
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Author: Chester A. Metcalf, Marie Rose van Schravendijk, David C. Dalgarno and Tomi K. Sawyer
The dynamic and highly regulated processes of bone remodeling involve two major cells, osteoclasts and osteoblasts, both of which command a multitude of cellular signaling pathways involving protein kinases. Of the possible kinases in these cells, Src tyrosine kinase stands out as a promising therapeutic target for bone disease as validated by Src knockout mouse studies and in vitro cellular experiments, suggesting a regulatory role for Src in both osteoclasts (positive) and osteoblasts (negative). Advances in structural studies involving both Src and non-Src family kinases, in activated and unactivated protein states, have uncovered key binding site interactions that have led to the design of potent Src inhibitors. The lead compounds originate from a variety of synthetic templates and have demonstrated nM potency in enzymatic/binding assays and efficacy in animal models of bone disease. This review will provide a current understanding of critical Src signalling pathways in osteoclasts and osteoblasts, while detailing the structure-based design and screening-based lead discovery of Src inhibitors to be developed as therapeutic agents for bone disease.
Page: 29-75 (47)
Author: Jerry W. Skiles, Nina C. Gonnella and Arco Y. Jeng
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-containing enzymes involved in the degradation and remodeling of extracellular matrix proteins. The activities of these enzymes are well regulated by endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Chronic stimulation of MMP activities due to an imbalance in the levels of MMPs and TIMPs has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases such as cancer, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Thus, MMP inhibitors are expected to be useful for the treatment of these disorders. This article reviews briefly the biochemistry of MMPs and evidence for their pathogenic roles using molecular biology approaches. Biomolecular structures used in the design of MMP inhibitors are thoroughly covered. Major emphasis is on recently published potent, small molecular weight MMP inhibitors and their pharmacological properties. Finally, available clinical results of compounds in development are summarized.
Page: 77-83 (7)
Author: Dong H. Kim and Shahriar Mobashery
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The functions of zinc proteases have been implicated in a host of physiological and pathological processes in living organisms. Mechanism-based inhibitors are highly sought as biologically active molecules that afford high selectivity in targeting specific enzymes. Mechanism-based inhibitors for zincdependent proteases have been developed in the past several years. These inhibitors exploit the chemistry inherent to transition metals in their mechanisms of enzyme inhibition. These efforts have been reviewed in this manuscript.
Page: 85-95 (11)
Author: A. Bertolini, A. Ottani and M. Sandrini
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Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are still the most commonly used remedies for rheumatic diseases. But NSAIDs produce serious adverse effects, the most important being gastric injury up to gastric ulceration and renal damage.
Several strategies have been adopted in order to avoid these shortcomings, expecially gastrointestinal toxicity. So, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been associated with gastroprotective agents that counteract the damaging effects of prostaglandin synthesis suppression: however, a combination therapy introduces problems of pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and patient ’ s compliance. Also incorporation of a nitric oxide (NO)-generating moiety into the molecule of several NSAIDs was shown to greatly attenuate their ulcerogenic activity: however, several findings suggest a possible involvement of NO in the pathogenesis of arthritis and subsequent tissue destruction.
A most promising approach seemed to be the preparation of novel NSAIDs, specific for the inducible isoform of cyclooxygenase (COX-2): they appear to be devoid of gastrointestinal toxicity, in that they spare mucosal prostaglandin synthesis.
However, a number of recent studies raised serious questions about the two central tenets that support this approach, namely that the prostaglandins that mediate inflammation and pain are produced solely via COX-2 and that the prostaglandins that are important in gastrointestinal and renal function are produced solely via COX-1. So, increasing evidence shows that COX-2 (not only COX-1) also plays a physiological role in several body functions and that, conversely, COX-1 (not only COX-2) may also be induced at sites of inflammation.
Moreover, COX-2 selective NSAIDs have lost the cardiovascular protective effects of non-selective NSAIDs, effects which are mediated through COX-1 inhibition (in addition, COX-2 has a role in sustaining vascular prostacyclin production).
The products generated by the 5-lipoxygenase pathway (leukotrienes) are particularly important in inflammation: indeed, leukotrienes increase microvascular permeability and are potent chemotactic agents; moreover, inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase indirectly reduces the expression of TNF-a (a cytokine that plays a key role in inflammation). This explains the efforts to obtain drugs able to inhibit both 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenases: the so-called dual acting anti-inflammatory drugs. Such compounds retain the activity of classical NSAIDs, while avoiding their main drawbacks, in that curtailed production of gastroprotective prostaglandins is associated with a concurrent curtailed production of the gastro-damaging and bronchoconstrictive leukotrienes.
Moreover, thanks to their mechanism of action, dual acting anti-inflammatory drugs could not merely alleviate symptoms of rheumatic diseases, but might also satisfy, at least in part, the criteria of curative drugs. Indeed, leukotrienes are pro-inflammatory, increase microvascular permeability, are potent chemotactic agents and attract eosinophils, neutrophils and monocytes into the synovium.
Finally, recent data strongly suggest that dual inhibitors may have specific protective activity also in neurodegeneration.
Page: 97-128 (32)
Author: Semiramis Ayral-Kaloustian and Edward J. Salaski
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Specific mutations in the ras gene impair the guanosine triphophatase (GTPase) activity of Ras proteins, which play a fundamental role in the signaling cascade, leading to uninterrupted growth signals and to the transformation of normal cells into malignant phenotypes. It has been shown that normal cells transfected with mutant ras gene become cancerous and that unfarnesylated, cytosolic mutant Ras protein does not anchor onto cell membranes and cannot induce this transformation. Posttranslational modification and plasma membrane association of mutant Ras is necessary for this transforming activity. Since its identification, the enzyme protein farnesyltransferase (FTase) that catalyzes the first and essential step of the three Ras processing steps has emerged as the most promising target for therapeutic intervention. FTase has been implicated as a potential target in inhibiting the prenylation of a variety of proteins, thus in controlling varied disease states (e.g. cancer, neurofibromatosis, restenosis, viral hepatitis, bone resorption, parasitic infections, corneal inflammations, and diabetes) associated with prenyl modifications of Ras and other proteins. Furthermore, it has been suggested that FTase inhibitors indirectly help in inhibiting tumors via suppression of angiogenesis and induction of apoptosis. Major milestones have been achieved with small-molecule FTase inhibitors that show efficacy without toxicity in vitro, as well as in mouse models bearing ras-dependent tumors. With the determination of the crystal structure of mammalian FTase, existent leads have been fine-tuned and new potent molecules of diverse structural classes have been designed. Extensive in vitro and in vivo studies with these inhibitors have revealed the complexities of the signaling cascade involving FTase, and shed more light on possible modes of tumor inhibition, without providing a clear-cut mechanism of action. A few of these molecules are currently in the clinic, with at least three drug candidates in Phase II studies and two in Phase III. This article will review the progress that has been reported with FTase inhibitors in drug discovery and in the clinic.
Page: 129-152 (24)
Author: Henry W. Pauls, William R. Ewing and Yong Mi Choi-Sledeski
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The last five years has seen an explosion of research into inhibitors of Factor Xa as potential antithrombotic agents. Aventis Pharma through its founder company Rhone-Poulenc Rorer was a participant in this effort and contributed significantly to the discovery of new inhibitors in recent years. This chapter traces the systematic development of the former Rhone-Poulenc Rorer factor Xa program from conception to the realization of potent, orally bioavailable inhibitors with exquisite selectivity against other serine proteases. The work on b- aminoesters described in Part 1 culminates in the development of FXV673 (Ki = 0.5 nM), an effective anticoagulant for acute indications. Part 2.2 details the de novo design of a pyrrolidinone series of inhibitors, within which a group of efficacious i.v. agents were identified (e.g RPR130737, Ki = 2 nM). The first active and bioavailable benzamidine isostere i.e. the 1-aminoisoquinoline (RPR208815, Ki = 22 nM) was discovered on the pyrrolidinone scaffold (Part 2.3). Ultimately a variety of benzamidine mimics were explored and incorporated into the ketopiperazine series (Part 3); the 6-substituted aminoquinazolines were found to be subnanomolar against factor Xa and highly selective. The azaindole moiety stands out as imparting favorable pharmacokinetic properties to the sulfonamido-ketopiperazines; RPR209685, a potent representative (Ki = 1 nM), was shown to be orally efficacious in the dog.
Small Molecule Activators of the Insulin Receptor: Potential New Therapeutic Agents for the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus
Page: 153-164 (12)
Author: Edgardo Laborde and Vara Prasad Manchem
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Diabetes Mellitus refers to a spectrum of syndromes characterized by abnormally high levels of glucose in blood. These syndromes are associated with an absolute (Type 1 diabetes) or relative (Type 2 diabetes) deficiency of insulin, coupled with varying degrees of peripheral resistance to the actions of insulin. Clinical studies have shown that controlling hyperglycemia significantly reduces the appearance and progression of the vascular complications associated with diabetes. Insulin's regulation of glucose homeostasis is mediated by a cascade of signaling events that take place upon insulin binding to its cell surface receptor. Autophosphorylation of the receptor and activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase are critical processes for transmitting these intracellular signals. Type 1 diabetes patients depend on exogenous insulin to achieve these effects, whereas Type 2 diabetes patients can accomplish a similar response through oral medications that increase the production of endogenous insulin or enhance its actions on the target tissues. Current biochemical and clinical evidence suggests that defects within the insulin receptor itself may be a cause of insulin resistance leading to Type 2 diabetes. This review focuses on the insulin receptor as a target for therapeutic intervention, and describes the recent discovery of small molecules that act on the receptor and either enhance or directly emulate the actions of insulin both in vitro and in vivo.
Page: 165-187 (23)
Author: Allan S. Wagman and John M. Nuss
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Concurrent with the spread of the western lifestyle, the prevalence of all types of diabetes is on the rise in the world's population. The number of diabetics is increasing by 4-5% per year with an estimated 40-45% of individual's over the age of 65 years having either type II diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. Since the signs of diabetes are not immediately obvious, diagnosis can be preceded by an extended period of impaired glucose tolerance resulting in the prevalence of beta-cell dysfunction and macrovascular complications. In addition to increased medical vigilance, diabetes is being combated through aggressive treatment directed at lowering circulating blood glucose and inhibiting postprandial hyperglycemic spikes. Current strategies to treat diabetes include reducing insulin resistance using glitazones, supplementing insulin supplies with exogenous insulin, increasing endogenous insulin production with sulfonylureas and meglitinides, reducing hepatic glucose production through biguanides, and limiting postprandial glucose absorption with alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. In all of these areas, new generations of small molecules are being investigated which exhibit improved efficacy and safety profiles. Promising biological targets are also emerging such as (1) insulin sensitizers including protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP- 1B) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), (2) inhibitors of gluconeogenesis like pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDH) inhibitors, (3) lipolysis inhibitors, (4) fat oxidation including carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I and II inhibitors, and (5) energy expenditure by means of beta 3-adrenoceptor agonists. Also important are alternative routes of glucose disposal such as Na+-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) inhibitors, combination therapies, and the treatment of diabetic complications (eg. retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy). With may new opportunities for drug discovery, the prospects are excellent for development of innovative therapies to effectively manage diabetes and prevent its long term complications. This review highlights recent (1997-2000) advances in diabetes therapy and research with an emphasis on small molecule drug design (275 references).
Page: 189-214 (26)
Author: G.B. Jones and F.S. Fouad
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The enediynes remain among the most potent antitumoral agents to have been discovered in the past decade. Following prodrug activation, the enediynes undergo cycloaromatization reactions resulting in formation of highly reactive diradical intermediates. The diradical species engage in atomtransfer chemistry to produce neutral arene products, in the process inducing damage to key macromolecules. Several of the naturally occurring members of the enediyne family of antibiotics have entered clinical trials, and this has prompted the design of synthetic enediynes, where the enediyne 'warhead' is conjugated to a targeted delivery vehicle. This review will describe ecent efforts using chemical synthesis to identify and improve the target specificity of designed enediynes, and to establish efficient methods to achieve prodrug activation. Finally, new horizons will be examined, including the use of post-cycloaromatized enediyne templates as recognition elements for unique DNA and RNA microenvironments.
Page: 215-235 (21)
Author: Sukanta Bhattacharyya
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Combinatorial technology for the generation of molecular diversity has evolved as an integrated component in accelerated drug discovery process. During the emerging days of combinatorial chemistry, solidphase organic synthesis has been the leading strategy for the production of large libraries for lead discovery. As combinatorial techniques for the library synthesis has evolved, solution-phase synthesis of smaller, targeted libraries is gaining attention. Numerous syntheses of biologically active chemical libraries of small molecules have been reported during the past decade. This review will focus only on the recent literature of chemical libraries targeted towards anticancer properties. The synthesis, chemistry and biological activity of these libraries as anticancer agents are summarized.
Page: 237-271 (35)
Author: Rickey P. Hicks and Daniel A. Nichols
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The technology of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy continues to advance at a rapid pace. The development of NMR based rapid high throughput screening methods to identify small organic molecules in complex mixtures that bind to specific protein targets has proven to be an effective method in lead identification. NMR coupled to liquid chromatography has opened a new door to the quantitative and qualitative analysis of complex mixtures including metabolites extracted from body fluids and extracts containing various natural products. This review will focus on the following four advances in NMR technology: 1) pulse-field gradient (PFG) NMR, 2) SAR (structure activity relationship) by NMR, 3) LC (liquid chromatography) NMR, and 4) application of membrane models for the study of neuropeptide and host defense peptide conformations. The information content available to medicinal chemists from each experiment will be discussed.
Page: 273-292 (20)
Author: Marshall M. Siegel
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Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometric methods useful for exploratory and early discovery drug screening are reviewed. All methods described involve studies of non-covalent complexes between biopolymer receptors and small molecule ligands formed in the condensed phase. The complexes can be transferred directly into the gas phase by ESI-MS using gentle experimental conditions. Gas phase screening applications are illustrated for drug ligand candidates noncovalently interacting with peptides, proteins, RNA, and DNA. In the condensed phase, the complexes can be also isolated, denatured and analyzed by ESI-MS to identify the small molecule ligands. Condensed phase drug screening examples are illustrated for the ESI-MS ancillary techniques of affinity chromatography, ultrafiltration, ultracentrifugation, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and capillary electrophoretic methods. Solid phase drug screening using MALDI-MS is illustrated for small molecule ligands bound to MALDI affinity probe tips and to beads. Since ESI and MALDI principally produce molecular ions, high throughput screening is achieved by analyzing mass indexed mixtures.
Page: 293-345 (53)
Author: Catherine Burnouf, Ingrid Devillers and Marie-Pierre Pruniaux
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PDE4 Inhibitors as Immunoregulators and Antiinflammatory Drugs
The phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are responsible for the hydrolysis of intracellular cyclic adenosine and guanosine monophosphate (cAMP and cGMP, respectively). They are classified into 11 major families (PDE1-11) and the type 4 phosphodiesterase (PDE4) is a cAMP-specific enzyme localized in airway smooth muscle cells as well as in immune and inflammatory cells. The PDE4 activity is associated with a wide variety of diseases some of which have been related to an inflammatory state, (e.g. asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA)) while others have recently been connected to autoimmune pathology. Therefore, an intense effort toward the development of PDE4 inhibitors has been generated for the last decade. Unfortunately, the effects of prototype PDE4 inhibitors have been compromised by side effects such as nausea and emesis and the clinical use of those compounds is still limited. Several companies have focused on the design of a new generation of PDE4 inhibitors dissociating beneficial activity and adverse effects. This review updates a previous article . It highlights the recent data of the most advanced clinical candidates, the design and structure activity relationships of the recent structural series reported in the literature over the last three and half years, as well as recent advances in the multiple therapeutic indications of PDE4 inhibitors (a review with more than 500 references).
Page: 347-359 (13)
Author: D. Spinks and G. Spinks
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Selective Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have contributed to the major advances in the treatment of depression and other psychiatric diseases. This review summarises current knowledge concerning the SSRI class of drugs and discusses the importance of secondary pharmacology in the mechanism of action and effectiveness of these drugs. This area of research has shed light on the pharmacological mechanisms of SSRI therapy and has increased the therapeutic usefulness of serotonin reuptake inhibition, especially in the area of depression. Particular attention is given to the emerging importance of the SSRI 'plus' approach: where the serotonin reuptake receptor inhibition of a drug is supplemented by one or more other receptor interactions either by the same drug or by a combination therapy. There are many new emerging SSRI 'plus' drugs, which address the pharmacological and pharmacokinetic issues of current therapies and these are discussed in detail.
Page: 361-384 (24)
Author: Kelly A. Conway, Ellen W. Baxter, Kevin M. Felsenstein and Allen B. Reitz
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Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder marked by loss of memory, cognition, and behavioral stability. AD is defined pathologically by extracellular neuritic plaques comprised of fibrillar deposits of b-amyloid peptide (Ab) and neurofibrillary tangles comprised of paired helical filaments of hyperphosphorylated tau. Current therapies for AD, such as cholinesterase inhibitors, treat the symptoms but do not modify the progression of the disease. The etiology of AD is unclear. However, data from familial AD mutations (FAD) strongly support the “amyloid cascade hypothesis” of AD, i.e. that neurodegeneration in AD is initiated by the formation of neurotoxic b-amyloid (Ab) aggregates; all FAD mutations increase levels of Ab peptide or density of Ab deposits. The likely link between Ab aggregation and AD pathology emphasizes the need for a better understanding of the mechanisms of Ab production. This review summarizes current therapeutic strategies directed at lowering Ab levels and decreasing levels of toxic Ab aggregates through (1) inhibition of the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) to Ab peptide, (2) inhibition, reversal or clearance of Ab aggregation, (3) cholesterol reduction and (4) Ab immunization.
Oxidative Stress in Animal Models of Accelerated Aging, Alzheimer’s Disease and Huntington’s Disease
Page: 385-397 (13)
Author: D. Allan Butterfield
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Oxidative stress in brain is emerging as a potential causal factor in aging and age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Brain tissue from living patients is difficult to acquire; hence, animal models of aging and age-related neurodegenerative disorders, though not perfect models, have provided tissue to study the role of oxidative stress in these disorders. In this review, the central role of oxidative damage in models of accelerated aging (progeria and Werner ’ s syndrome) and the age-related neurodegenerative disorders, Alzheimer's disease and Huntington ’ s disease, will be presented and evaluated. To the extent that the animal models faithfully mirror their respective disorders, and based on the totality of the studies, it is apparent that oxidative stress, the excess of free radicals over the means of scavenging these harmful agents, may play critical roles in the molecular basis of accelerated aging, Alzheimer's disease, and Huntington's disease.
Page: 399-408 (10)
Author: Anil Purohit, Katharine Herrick-Davis and Milt Teitler
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Several lines of evidence indicate that G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) may exist in a state that allows a tonic level of stimulation in vivo (constitutive activity). Several native forms of GPCR, when expressed in recombinant cell lines, display significant signal transduction stimulation in the absence of activating ligand. Many GPCR, including four serotonin receptors, display robust constitutive activation upon the mutation of a single amino acid, indicating mutations producing inappropriate constitutive activation may be etiological factors in diseases. If constitutive activity of GPCR is as common a phenomenon as some researchers suspect, this would suggest significant alterations in the classical model of ligand-receptor interactions. One of the most significant implications of constitutive activity for pharmacologists and medicinal chemists, is the possibility of developing drugs that lower the level of constitutive activity. Such compounds have been termed “inverse agonists“. These drugs, in theory, would have different physiological effects, and therefore possibly different therapeutic potential, than classical competitive receptor antagonists (“neutral antagonists“). In this review, theoretical issues concerning constitutive activity in the GPCR family and evidence supporting the existence of constitutively active GPCR are discussed. Data demonstrating the activation of human 5-HT 2A, 5-HT2C, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors by single amino acid substitutions are presented. These studies demonstrate the procedures for producing and characterizing constitutively active forms of serotonin receptors, including the demonstration of inverse agonist activity of drugs on these receptors.
Page: 409-475 (67)
Author: Alex Avdeef
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About 30% of drug candidate molecules are rejected due to pharmacokinetic-related failures. When poor pharmaceutical properties are discovered in development, the costs of bringing a potent but poorly absorbable molecule to a product stage by “formulation” can become very high. Fast and reliable in vitro prediction strategies are needed to filter out problematic molecules at the earliest stages of discovery. This review will consider recent developments in physicochemical profiling used to identify candidate molecules with physical properties related to good oral absorption. Poor solubility and poor permeability account for many PK failures. FDA's Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) is an attempt to rationalize the critical components related to oral absorption. The core idea in the BCS is an in vitro transport model, centrally embracing permeability and solubility, with qualifications related to pH and dissolution. The objective of the BCS is to predict in vivo performance of drug products from in vitro measurements of permeability and solubility. In principle, the framework of the BCS could serve the interests of the earliest stages of discovery research. The BCS can be rationalized by considering Fick's first law, applied to membranes. When molecules are introduced on one side of a lipid membrane barrier (e.g., epithelial cell wall) and no such molecules are on the other side, passive diffusion will drive the molecules across the membrane. When certain simplifying assumptions are made, the flux equation in Fick's law reduces simply to a product of permeability and solubility. Many other measurable properties are closely related to permeability and solubility. Permeability (Pe) is a kinetic parameter related to lipophilicity (as indicated by the partition and distribution coefficients, log P and log D). Retention (R) of lipophilic molecules by the membrane (which is related to lipophilicity and may predict PK volumes of distribution) influences the characterization of permeability. Furthermore, strong drug interactions with serum proteins can influence permeability. The unstirred water layer on both sides of the membrane barrier can impose limits on permeability. Solubility (S) is a thermodynamic parameter, and is closely related to dissolution, a kinetic parameter. The unstirred water layer on the surfaces of suspended solids imposes limits on dissolution. Bile acids effect both solubility and dissolution, by a micellization effect. For ionizable molecules, pH plays a crucial role. The charge state that a molecule exhibits at a particular pH is characterized by the ionization constant (pKa) of the molecule. Buffers effect pH gradients in the unstirred water layers, which can dramatically affect both permeability and dissolution of ionizable molecules. In this review, we will focus on the emerging instrumental methods for the measurement of the physicochemical parameters Pe, S, pK a, R, log P, and log D (and their pH-profiles). These physicochemical profiles can be valuable tools for the medicinal chemists, aiding in the prediction of in vivo oral absorption.
Page: 477-500 (24)
Author: Agnieszka Kaczor and Dariusz Matosiuk
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Developments in the domain of non-peptide opioid receptor agonists, beginning from the first evidence of opiate binding to definite receptors, are briefly summarized. The recent achievements are in a more detailed way depicted and discussed. Novel agonists for each of three opioid receptor basic types (d (DOR), k (KOR) and m (MOR)) are presented with the special emphasis on one-type-selective ligands. Such selective or even specific agonists have been synthesized with a moderate success. Considerably more serious difficulties concern searching for selective ligands for opioid receptor subtypes (m1 (MOR1), m2 (MOR2), d1 (DOR1), d2 (DOR2), k1 (KOR1), k2 (KOR2), k3 (KOR3)) which may be connected with the fact that dissimiliarities observed in vivo result from postbinding processes (signaling).
For the large number of opioid receptor ligands, their structural diversity and relative easiness of generating them from combinatorial libraries (not comparable even with that of orphanine receptors) it is justified to consider the plasticity of opioid receptors (MOR especially). This remark, in conjunction with the existence of opioid receptor types and subtypes, may enable to create new drugs with significantly reduced sideeffects.
The above facts and brand new reports about highly-active opioid agonists possessing no moieties thought to be essential for agonist activity make the need of reevaluation of classical opioid receptor pharmacophore model extremely important.
In general, research results suggest that selective agonists of opioid receptors can be found both in morphine type of ligands and new structures like pyrido-acridine derivatives (COMP1) or diphenylmethylpiperazine derivatives (SNC 80). Better understanding of the structural prerequisites of the opioid receptors binding domains will certainly lead to even more potent and more selective ligands in near future.
Page: 501-512 (12)
Author: E.M. Kurowska
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Endothelial dysfunction defined as the impaired ability of vascular endothelium to stimulate vasodilation plays a key role in the development of atherosclerosis and in various pathological conditions which predispose to atherosclerosis, such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, hyperhomocyst(e)inemia and chronic renal failure. The major cause of the endothelial dysfunction is decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO), a potent biological vasodilator produced in vascular endothelium from Larginine by the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). In vascular diseases, the bioavailability of NO can be impaired by various mechanisms, including decreased NO production by eNOS, and/or enhanced NO breakdown due to increased oxidative stress. The deactivation of eNOS is often associated with elevated plasma levels of its endogenous inhibitor, NG NG-dimethyl-L-arginine (ADMA). In hypercholesterolemia, a systemic deficit of NO may also increase the levels of low density lipoproteins (LDL) by modulating its synthesis and metabolism by the liver, as suggested by recent in vivo and in vitro studies using organic NO donors. Therapeutic strategies aiming to reduce the risk of vascular diseases by increasing bioavailability of NO continue to be developed. Cholesterollowering drugs, statins, have been shown to improve endothelial function in patients with hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Promising results were also obtained in some, but not all, vascular diseases after treatment with antioxidant vitamins (C and E) and after administration of eNOS substrate, L-arginine, or its cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). Novel strategies, which may produce beneficial changes in the vascular endothelium, include the use of natural extracts from plant foods rich in phytochemicals.
Page: 513-528 (16)
Author: Céline Adessi and Claudio Soto
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Peptides play a major role in a diversity of biological functions, such as hormones, growth factors and neuropeptides. However, the development of peptides as therapeutic drugs has been limited by their poor metabolic stability and their inability to readily cross membrane barriers such as the intestinal and blood-brain barriers. The aim of peptide medicinal chemistry is to develop strategies to overcome these problems. Recent progress in chemical synthesis and design have resulted in several strategies for producing modified peptides and mimetics with lower susceptibility to proteolysis and improved bioavailability, which has increased the probability of obtaining useful drugs structurally related to parent peptides. This review describes different experimental approaches to transforming a peptide into a potential drug and provides examples of the usefulness of these strategies.
Page: 529-542 (14)
Author: Jerry M. Buysse
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Complete DNA sequence information has now been obtained for numerous prokaryotic genomes, defining the entire genetic complement of these species. The collection of genomic data has provided new insights into the molecular architecture of bacterial cells, revealing the basic genetic and metabolic structures that support viability of the organisms. Genomic information has also revealed new avenues for inhibition of bacterial growth and viability, expanding the number of possible drug targets for antibiotic discovery. This review examines how genomic sciences and experimental tools are applied to antibacterial target discovery, the necessary first step in the development of new antibiotic classes. Significant advances have been realized in the development of functional genomic, comparative genomic, and proteomic methods for the analysis of completed genomes. The combination of these methods can be used to systematically parse the genome and identify targets worthy of inhibitor screens. Two basic categories of targets emerge from this exercise, comprising in vitro essential targets required for bacterial viability on synthetic media and in vivo essential targets required to establish and maintain infection within a host organism. Current use of genomic information is focused primarily on a definition of all in vitro essential targets that satisfy criteria of selectivity, spectrum, and novelty. As the genomes of additional bacterial pathogens are solved, it will be possible to select in vivo essential targets common to groups of select pathogens (e.g., bacterial agents of community acquired pneumonia) or even pathogen-specific targets. Consideration of host-pathogen interactions, defined at the level of gene expression for each organism, might provide novel therapeutic options in the future.
Page: 543-579 (37)
Author: Erik De Clercq
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Virtually all the compounds that are currently used (or have been the subject of advanced clinical trials), for the treatment of HIV infections, belong to one of the following classes: (i) nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs): i.e., zidovudine, didanosine, zalcitabine, stavudine, lamivudine, abacavir, emtricitabine and nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs) (i.e. tenofovir disoproxil fumarate); (ii) nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs): i.e., nevirapine, delavirdine, efavirenz, emivirine; and (iii) protease inhibitors (PIs): i.e., saquinavir, ritonavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, amprenavir and lopinavir. In addition to the reverse transcriptase and protease reaction, various other events in the HIV replicative cycle can be considered as potential targets for chemotherapeutic intervention: (i) viral adsorption, through binding to the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 (polysulfates, polysulfonates, polycarboxylates, polyoxometalates, polynucleotides, and negatively charged albumins); (ii) viral entry, through blockade of the viral coreceptors CXCR4 [i.e. bicyclam (AMD3100) derivatives] and CCR5 (i.e. TAK-779 derivatives); (iii) virus-cell fusion, through binding to the viral envelope glycoprotein gp41 (T-20, T-1249); (iv) viral assembly and disassembly, through NCp7 zinc fingertargeted agents [2,2'-dithiobisbenzamides (DIBAs), azadicarbonamide (ADA)]; (v) proviral DNA integration, through integrase inhibitors such as 4-aryl-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid derivatives; (vi) viral mRNA transcription, through inhibitors of the transcription (transactivation) process (flavopiridol, fluoroquinolones). Also, various new NRTIs, NNRTIs and PIs have been developed that possess, respectively: (i) improved metabolic characteristics (i.e. phosphoramidate and cyclosaligenyl pronucleotides by-passing the first phosphorylation step of the NRTIs), (ii) increased activity [“second” generation NNRTIs (i.e. TMC-125, DPC-083)] against those HIV strains that are resistant to the “first” generation NNRTIs, or (iii), as in the case of PIs, a different, modified peptidic [i.e. azapeptidic (atazanavir)] or non-peptidic scaffold [i.e. cyclic urea (mozenavir), 4-hydroxy-2-pyrone (tipranavir)]. Non-peptidic PIs may be expected to inhibit HIV mutant strains that have become resistant to peptidomimetic PIs.
Page: 581-594 (14)
Author: William A. Denny
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Recent work on a number of different classes of anticancer agents that alkylate DNA in the minor groove is reviewed. Attachment of nitrogen mustards to a variety of carrier molecules (intercalators, polypyrroles, polyimidazoles, bis(benzimidazoles), anilinoquinolinium salts and polybenzamides) can alter their normal patterns of both regio- and sequence-selectivity, from reaction primarily at most guanine N7 sites in the major groove to selected adenine N3 sites at the 3'-end of poly(A/T) sequences in the minor groove. In contrast, similar targeting of pyrrolizidine alkylators by a variety of carriers has little effect on their patterns of alkylation (at the 2-amino group of guanine). Finally, the pyrrolobenzodiazepine and cyclopropaindolone classes of natural products are intrinsic minor groove alkylating agents. Due to their large DNA binding site size, minor groove alkylators are highly sequence-selective, with potential as selective inhibitors of gene expression. However, their direct clinical use is limited by myelotoxicity, and a major new application for the more potent compounds is as effectors for prodrugs.
Page: 595-606 (12)
Author: Johan Wouters and Frédéric Ooms
PDF Price: $15
Crystal structures of small ligands are a source of valuable structural information helpful in the process of drug design (pharmacophore model elaborations, 3D QSAR, docking, and de novo design). In particular, small molecules crystallography can approach ligand-receptor binding by providing unique structural features both about the conformation (internal geometry) of the ligand(s) and about the intermolecular interaction potentially occurring within the active site of a target (enzyme/receptor). Small molecule crystal structure databases can also be used in three-dimensional search to identify new drug candidates. Future development in small molecule crystallography (e.g. powder diffraction) should also provide original solutions to complex problems related to polymorphism.
Compound Optimization in Early and Late Phase Drug Discovery: Acceptable Pharmacokinetic Properties Utilizing Combined Physicochemical, In Vitro and In Vivo Screens
Page: 607-618 (12)
Author: Gary W. Caldwell
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New chemical entities (NCEs) are abandoned in development primarily because of insufficient efficacy, safety issues, and for economic reasons. Since efficacy and safety deficiencies are related in part to pharmacokinetics (PK), uncovering PK defects as early in drug discovery as possible would be highly valuable in reducing NCE failures in preclinical and clinical development. In this review, a strategy is put forth to integrate drug metabolism/pharmacokinetics and toxicology functions into drug discovery. Compound optimization in early and late phase drug discovery is covered emphasizing physicochemical properties, in vitro absorption, metabolism, and in vivo animal PK methodologies. The present study also illustrates the idea of sorting oral bioavailability data into high/intermediate/low categories based on combining high/low rank-ordered information from physicochemical properties and in vitro absorption, metabolism, and serum binding assays. It is shown that by combining the results from solubility, stability, absorption and metabolism assays the high/intermediate/low human oral bioavailability for a series of b- blockers can be approximately predicted. This method has a high sample throughput and should be useful in rank-ordering the predicted oral bioavailability of large collections of compounds at the lead optimization step of drug discovery. These results are useful for selecting compounds for future in vitro-in vivo correlation modeling or in vivo animal testing. This type of approach will improve the decision making process of compound selection in drug discovery.
Page: 619-645 (27)
Author: G. Bischoff, S. Hoffmann and R. Zhdanov
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The interactions of various low-molecular weight substances with DNA are naturally relevant mechanisms in the cellular cycle and so also used in medicinal treatment. Depending on the particular drug structure, DNA-binding modes like groove-binding, intercalating and/or stacking, give rise to supramolecular assemblies of the polynucleotides, as well as influence the DNA-protein binding.
In this review, we compare the underlying molecular structures, including general aspects of DNA sequences, with the benefit in medicinal treatment. While so far interest in this field had mainly been devoted to isolated nucleic acid/drug interactions, the present paper will focus on drug efficiencies generating and influencing supramolecular organizations and their complex sequence-dependent structure-activity codes. In particular, the attention will be directed to stereoelectronic relationships. Spatial enantioselective properties are discussed in details. As examples, the drug self-assemblies, as well as the influence of drugs on supramolecular DNA formations are described. A hypothetical connection between drug-influenced DNAtoroids and the formation of micronuclei in tissues will be interpreted. As an important group of medicines a variety of lipids appears, which could also be bound to chromatin and DNA as an individual molecules or as lipoproteins. Their upcoming importance on the regulation of lipid composition in genome, called lipidomics, is briefly described, too.
Page: 647-662 (16)
Author: Anton E.P. Adang and Pedro H.H. Hermkens
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In the process of finding new drug candidates, medicinal chemists nowadays have a variety of options to choose from, one is to apply combinatorial chemistry techniques. Since the early 1990's synthetic and analytical methods as well as new technologies have been growing rapidly in the area of combinatorial chemistry. Applying these techniques has resulted in the production of large numbers of compounds. A trend is observed towards smaller libraries of compounds with more drug-like properties. An analysis is made to establish the contribution of combinatorial chemistry in providing new lead candidates for (pre-)clinical development towards new pharmaceutical products. Eleven representative examples are given to describe the impact of combinatorial chemistry on different levels of the lead discovery and optimization process. Furthermore, reports on combinatorial chemistry products that are already in (pre) clinical development were traced back to their source. The interim analysis showed only limited success of early combinatorial chemistry approaches in terms of delivering lead candidates. Second generation libraries appear to be more drug-like and focussed and may result in more compounds entering clinical development in the future.
Page: 663-681 (19)
Author: Joseph J. Barchi and Nouri Neamati
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The new millennium has ushered in an era of science that will revolutionize a great majority of our daily activities. That revolution is being experienced by a growing number of the population who are pushing the average life expectancy closer to the 80-year mark. The primary reason for this increase is the changes we have made in the last 2-3 decades both in how we live our lives as well as how we treat our maladies when they arise. The advent of new techniques in diagnostics and surgery have allowed many to survive debilitating illnesses when their chances would have been slim only a few years ago. In addition, several new therapeutic agents have been developed in the latter part of the 20 th century that have improved our quality of life and increased our overall survival time. New medicines to treat cardiovascular, degenerative, infectious, and neoplastic diseases are rapidly being discovered in an effort to further lengthen our lifetimes. The processes used by academic and industrial scientist to discover new drugs has recently experienced a true renaissance with many new and exciting techniques being developed in only the past 5-10 years. In this review, we will attempt to outline these latest protocols that chemists and biomedical scientist are currently employing to rapidly bring new drugs to the clinic.
Page: 683-683 (1)
Author: Atta ur-Rahman and Allen B. Reitz
Page: 685-688 (4)
Author: Atta ur-Rahman and Allen B. Reitz
Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry is a book series devoted to the review of areas of important topical interest to medicinal chemists and others in allied disciplines. Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry covers all the areas of medicinal chemistry, including developments in rational drug design, bioorganic chemistry, high-throughput screening, combinatorial chemistry, compound diversity measurements, drug absorption, drug distribution, metabolism, new and emerging drug targets, natural products, pharmacogenomics, chemoinformatics, and structure-activity relationships. Medicinal chemistry as a discipline is rapidly maturing. The study of how structure and function are related is absolutely essential to understanding the molecular basis of life. Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry aims to contribute in a major way to the growth of scientific knowledge and insight, and facilitate the discovery and development of new therapeutic agents to treat debilitating human disorders. This book series is essential for any medicinal chemist who wishes to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and the most important advances.