Book Volume 10
Page: 1-42 (42)
Author: Gloria G. Guerrero M.*, Juan Manuel Favela-H, Bryan A Espinoza R, Isaias Balderas R and Jose Olivares T
PDF Price: $30
The design of novel, safe, and effective drugs of natural origin is a
challenging issue. To screen and uncover the infinite world of antimicrobial agents
derived from secondary metabolites for drug discovery requires the integration of highthroughput technologies such as biology systems (bioinformatics) and omics
technologies. These technologies include genomics, metagenomics, transcriptomes,
proteomics, and metabolomics). In the present chapter, we focused on revisiting several
aspects of these technologies in order to emphasize their unprecedented contribution to
drug discovery. In addition, they represent a step forward in pharmacological and
Page: 1-51 (51)
Author: Phanankosi Moyo*, Vinesh Maharaj, Sephora M. Mutombo, Warren Andrew Andayi, Linda Amoah, Kathithileni M. Kalili, Kwame Kumi Asare and Cynthia Amaning Danquah
Despite the meritorious measures taken to curb the malaria scourge in the
last two decades, the drug-resistance phenomenon threatens to reverse the gains made.
Evidence of partial resistance against the first-line antimalarial drugs, the artemisinin-based combination therapies, in Africa, a region that accounts for 95% of global
malaria cases, has aroused fears that it could spread fast and significantly jeopardise
malaria control and eradication efforts. While the antimalarial drug discovery pipeline
has several, encouraging candidates emerging through it, unfortunately, the attrition
rate is high, with some candidates failing either in preclinical studies or clinical trials.
Moreover, the rate of emergence of drug-resistant Plasmodium parasite strains far
exceeds that of the drug discovery and development process. These challenges demand
novel strategies to complement the discovery and development of new therapeutics.
One such strategy is the reversal of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to old
antimalarials by combining these drugs with agents that specifically target drug-resistance mechanisms. This strategy has been successfully used in the antibiotics field,
with a classical successful example being the amoxicillin and clavulanic acid combination tion. In this chapter, we present a case for the need to discover and develop antimalarial
drug-resistance reversal agents to prolong the efficacy and use of currently available
antimalarial quinoline drugs as well as the re-use of old antimalarial quinoline drugs
that have been rendered ineffective by drug-resistance. Furthermore, we provide an
overview of noteworthy significant innovations that have been made in the field in
search for antimalaria drug-resistance reversal agents. We conclude by providing
perspectives on how these efforts can be expedited.
Page: 1-34 (34)
Author: Sevgi Akarsu* and Fatma Polat
PDF Price: $30
Although commonly used anti-infective vaccines in clinical practice are
generally safe, certain local or systemic adverse reactions related to them may rarely
occur. Actually, considering the general vaccination rates, the incidence of serious skin
reactions (e.g . angioedema, anaphylaxis, Stevens–Johnson syndrome) is very low but
vaccine-associated local cutaneous reactions such as erythema, edema, tenderness and
pain at the injection sites are one of the most common complications of vaccines.
Furthermore, a wide variety of specific or non-specific localized or generalized
cutaneous adverse effects (e.g. lichenoid eruption, granuloma annulare,
pseudolymphoma, erythema nodosum, erythema multiforme, Gianotti-Crosti
syndrome, urticaria, lupus erythematosus, bullous pemphigoid, purpura) have been
reported in the literature related with commonly used anti-infective vaccines. In this
chapter, these adverse cutaneous reactions potentially associated with anti-infective
vaccines were summarized with a comprehensive literature review.