Substance and Non Substance Related Addiction Disorders: Diagnosis and Treatment

Neurobiology and Psycho-Social Basis for Addiction and Related Disorders

Author(s): Subhash C. Bhatia

Pp: 3-9 (7)

DOI: 10.2174/9781681083438117010004

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


Addictive disorders are diseases of the brain. Addictions like chronic illness may have remissions and relapses. These are caused by genetic, biological, psychological, social and economic factors. Reward pathways for all substance and non-substance related addictive behavior (gambling, sex and food addiction etc.) are similar and are mediated through nucleus accumbens and associated circuits. Negative preexisting emotional state or due to withdrawal from substance and self-medication to seek relief may perpetuate addictive behavior. Substance or non-substance related addictive behavior-pleasure-reinforcement-reuse paradigm perpetuates addictive behavior. Environmental cues and memories associated with addiction related activities contribute to craving and relapse. Dopamine neurotransmitter plays major role in addictive behaviors. Treatment consideration should factor in all of these biopsychosocial factors.

Keywords: Addiction reward pathways, Cues and craving, Dopamine, Nucleus accumbens, Operant conditioning, Self-medication theory.

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