HIV testing strategies should be carefully tailored to specific settings and populations. Screening algorithms typically include rapid test, ELISA and Western blot testing cascades. Over the counter consumer tests for oral fluids are expanding in developed countries, and early infant diagnosis screening programs such as Dried Blood Spot (DBS) testing are expanding in developing countries with high HIV prevalence. Advanced nucleic and PCR based testing platforms continue to be simplified as Point of Care (POC) equipment by numerous manufacturers. Psychosocial support and counseling are critical components of effective HIV testing programs in any community, and serve as a bridge between testing activities and early uptake to treatment regimens.