Dendritic cell-based vaccines are considered the most advanced examples of active specific immunotherapy against cancer. Dendritic cells, being pivotal for the induction of immunity or tolerance, are not a single cell-type but comprise a large group of cells with differing phenotypes, all with crucial implications for the resulting immune response. To date, cancer vaccines are even being developed for cancers that have traditionally not been regarded as immunogenic, like brain cancer, which might even display underexplored opportunities rather than only hurdles. The major actual challenge is the full integration of the vaccines into the complex interface of the patient as host of the tumor, the tumor micro-environment and the conventional and other therapies applied.
Keywords: Brain cancer, combinatorial therapies, dendritic cell, glioma, immune modulation, immune profiles, micro-environment, tumor antigens, tumor vaccine.