This chapter first gave a broad overview of the application of phytoremediation technologies for the management of metal-contaminated sites. Then the interactions between plants and the microorganisms in the rhizosphere are reviewed as these could influence the potential accomplishment of these phytotechnologies. Plant-microbe interactions can be enhanced or modulated by modifying microbial population (rhizoengineering) for the remediation of pollutants present in the soils. Rhizoengineering is an innovative approach towards phytoremediation.
Keywords: Bioaccumulation, bioavailability (of heavy metals), bioremediation, biosorption, ecotoxicity, indole-3-acetic acid, metal uptake, mycorrhizal associations, phytoextraction, phytoremediation, phytosiderophore, phytotechnologies, plant growth promoting bacteria, pollution, rhizobacteria (interactions between plants), rhizoengineering, rhizofiltration, rhizosphere, root exudates, toxic metals.