Industrial Applications of Polymer Composites

Polymer Composites in Tissue Engineering

Author(s): Togam Ringu, Sampad Ghosh and Nabakumar Pramanik *

Pp: 58-86 (29)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815124811123010006

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


A composite is a multiphase material made of layers of stacked phase i.e., a matrix, an interface and a reinforced phase. The matrix phase is the main constituent of a composite. The interface binds the matrix and the reinforced phase, whereas, the latter provides strength to the material. Based on the matrix and the reinforced phase, it may be classified into various types such as fibers, particles, polymers, ceramics and metals. Polymer composite is a sub-type of composite having a polymer matrix and different reinforced materials. Due to its biocompatible nature, it is widely used in the field of biomedical applications. Many manufacturing methods are used in composites, but some of the commonly used manufacturing techniques include hand lay-up, reinforced reaction injection molding (RRIM), centrifugal casting, etc. High strength, and ductility with lightweight, cytocompatibility, and non-toxicity are some of the properties due to which composite materials are widely used in various industries such as automobile, aerospace, sports equipment, and tissue engineering. In tissue engineering (TE), a biomaterial called a scaffold, is developed that evolves into a functional tissue. Enhanced cell proliferation, cell adhesion and cell viability are observed with the composite-developed scaffold. Scaffold is fabricated using two types of composites; natural and synthetic composites. The applications of polymer composites at the bioengineering level are of great interest nowadays. This chapter intends to study various physicochemical properties of polymer composites including their bioengineering/tissue engineering applications elaborately. The study investigating the physicochemical properties and bioengineering/tissue engineering applications of polymer composites may bestow valuable insight into the potential of polymer composites in modern science. 

Keywords: Cytocompatibility, Cell proliferation, Interface, Matrix, Multiphase, Polymer composites, Reinforcements, Scaffolds, Tissue engineering.

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