Methods for Preclinical Evaluation of Bioactive Natural Products

Activity Methods For Animal Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Studies

Author(s): Rosangela Montanaro, Francesco Maione and Vincenzo Brancaleone *

Pp: 280-292 (13)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815123043123010012

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


This chapter provides an overview of the main features that need to be assessed with respect to the general pharmacology (pharmacokinetics, PK; pharmacodynamics, PD) of all molecules, including natural compounds. Here, the attention has been focused on bioavailability, the volume of distribution, and clearance to describe the physiological processes of absorption/distribution and elimination of drugs from the body. It is worth pointing out that PD studies always require an in vitro preliminary approach, not issued here, that needs to be assessed and confirmed in vivo. Indeed, PD studies aim to the individuation of specific molecular targets, responsible for an observed pharmacological effect. Thus, the use of animal models as a complex approach does not allow to dissect the molecular mechanisms of natural compounds but can confirm their efficacy in vivo. Therefore, specific PD approaches to determine a specific action by a compound are addressed in the relevant chapters within this book. 

Keywords: Pharmacokinetics, Bioavailability, Distribution, Elimination, Half-life.

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