Toll-Like Receptors in Vector-borne Diseases

Introduction to Vector Borne Diseases

Author(s): Jayalakshmi Krishnan *

Pp: 1-5 (5)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815124545123010003

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


Vector-borne diseases(VBDs) are reported to represent amount 17% of all infectious diseases. The geographical distribution of vectors depends upon various climatic factors, and social factors. In the recent past, the spread of VBDs across the world is so rapid that it is associated with a change in climatic factors, global warming, travel and trade, unplanned urbanization, deforestation etc. Amongst the vector-borne diseases notable is West Nile fever (WNF) caused by West Nile Virus (WNV). WNF belongs to the family of Flaviviridae, which is part of the Japanese encephalitis antigenic group. WNV is transmitted from infected birds to human beings by mosquito bites. WNV is readily reported in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, North America and West Asia. Looking at the history, WNV was first isolated in a woman in the West Nile district of Uganda in 1937. It was identified in birds (crows and columbiformes) in the Nile delta region in 1953. Over the past 50 years, human cases of WNV have been reported in various countries.

Keywords: Chikungunya fever, Dengue, Leishmaniasis, Malaria, Vector-borne diseases (VBDs), West Nile fever (WNF).

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