Nutrition is directly related to human health. It is very critical to determine the nutritional status to prevent or diagnose diseases and create the right treatment plans. The determination of the nutritional status provides an early diagnosis of growth and development retardation such as malnutrition. It also plays a major role in preventing diseases that may be caused by vitamin and mineral deficiencies. It helps in the surveillance of one of the world's most serious health problems, namely “obesity.” Different ways can be used to assess nutritional status. One of the best ways to assess the nutritional and health status is to use biomarkers. A biomarker is a substance whose detection indicates a specific disease state or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers are used to detect nutrient consumption and deficiencies as early as possible, enabling early intervention for metabolic problems. Biomarkers also allow the visualization of diseases that a person might develop or potentially have with a sample, such as blood, tissue, and urine, from the person. Health interventions such as nutritional advice will preserve health or promote rapid recovery. In this chapter, the topic of biomarkers related to nutrition and nutrient deficiencies is discussed. The existence of new possible biomarkers is also reviewed.
Keywords: Biomarker, Dietary biomarkers, Food Exposure Markers, Macronutrient, Metabolomics, Micronutrient, Nutrient, Nutrigenomics, Nutrition, Nutritional Assessment, Omics technologies.