Over the last decade, significant advancements have been made in the molecular mechanisms, diagnostic methods, prognostication, and treatment options in hematologic malignancies. As the treatment landscape continues to expand, personalized treatment is much more important.
With the development of new technologies, more sensitive evaluation of residual disease using flow cytometry and next generation sequencing is possible nowadays. Although some conventional biomarkers preserve their significance, novel potential biomarkers accurately detect the mutational landscape of different cancers, and also, serve as prognostic and predictive biomarkers, which can be used in evaluating therapy responses and relapses. It is likely that we will be able to offer a more targeted and risk-adapted therapeutic approach to patients with hematologic malignancies guided by these potential biomarkers. This chapter summarizes the biomarkers used (or proposed to be used) in the diagnosis and/or monitoring of hematologic neoplasms.
Keywords: Chromosomal, Classification, Cytogenetic, Epigenetic, Genomic biomarkers, Hematologic neoplasm, Immunohistochemistry, lncRNA, Microenvironment, MicroRNA, Minimal residual disease, Molecular, Mutations, Scoring system.