Gynecologic malignancies are one of the most frequent cancers amongst women. Biomarkers are crucial for the differential diagnosis of adnexal masses; however, their potential for diagnosis is limited. In the era of difficulty in ovarian cancer screening, novel biomarkers are defined, but CA125 still remains the most valuable one. Circulating tumor DNAs, DNA hypermethylation, metabolites, microRNAs, and kallikreins have recently turned out as ovarian cancer biomarkers and are being applied to clinical practice. For uterine cancer, genomic classification has now been described, it will be used as a prognostic tool. In this chapter, we describe ovarian, endometrial, and cervical cancer biomarkers in detail.
Keywords: Biomarker, CA125, Cervical cancer, cfDNA, HE4, High-copy number, miRNA, MSI, MSS, Ovarian cancer, POLE-mutated, ROMA, SCC-Ag, Uterine cancer.