Carbon-based nanostructured materials have derived substantial attention as
novel functional materials towards the fabrication of various biosensing platforms
owing to their interesting physicochemical and optoelectronic properties, as well as
desired surface functionalities. These nanomaterials provide increased and oriented
immobilization of biomolecules along with maintaining their biological activity in view
of their lower cytotoxicity and higher biocompatibility. The integration of carbon
nanomaterials with biosensing platforms has provided new opportunities and paved the
way for the efficient detection of various biomolecules and analytes. These
nanostructured materials-based biosensors have improved biosensing characteristics,
including broader linear detection range, lower detection limit, better selectivity, and
higher sensitivity. This chapter summarizes the results of different electrochemical and
fluorescent biosensors related to various nanostructured carbon materials, namely
carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene and its derivatives (reduced graphene oxide (rGO),
graphene oxide (GO), graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and carbon dots (CDs).
Keywords: Biosensor, Carbon dots, Carbon nanotubes, Electrochemical, Fluorescent, Graphene, Graphene oxide, Graphene quantum dots, Heteroatom doping, Nanomaterial, Nanostructured, Reduced graphene oxide, Surface functionalization.