With the increasing population of the world and the daily life demands
supplied through industries and modern industrialized agricultural systems, the need for
the preservation of ecosystems is increasing day by day. Many industrial processes
result in large amounts of organic waste as well as inorganic contaminants that
deteriorate food and water quality. Immediate measures to avoid the negative impact on
the environment are necessary. The generation of large quantities of hazardous
materials in the form of heavy metals, radioactive substances, phenolic compounds,
and volatile organic chemicals has resulted in the requirement for new and
environmentally safe methods for their elimination. In situ degradation of hazardous
organic materials by microbes is often the most cost-effective clean-up approach.
Biological treatment of these hazardous wastes is potentially effective, practical, and
economical. Bioremediation is measured as one of the safer, cleaner, cost-effective, and
eco-friendly technologies for decontaminating sites. It uses numerous agents such as
bacteria, yeast, fungi, algae, and higher plants as its main tools in treating oil spills,
pesticides, radionuclides, polluted groundwater, and heavy metals existing in the
environment. Currently, different methods and strategies are being applied in different
parts of the world. Phytoextraction, biostimulation, fungal bioremediation, and
rhizofiltration are some of the more common ones. Because of specific applications, all
bioremediation techniques have their advantages and disadvantages.
Keywords: Biodegradation, Biological pesticides, Bioremediation, Pollution.