The recent trend of gene therapy includes the RNAi therapeutic approach. RNAi therapy comprises the delivery of siRNA, shRNA and miRNA molecules to the cells for gene silencing. Among these types, shRNA is a more stable knockdown method. However, bare shRNA molecules are large and they can not penetrate the cell membrane due to their negative charge and also they are fragile and degradable by RNase enzymes in the body. To overcome these problems, nanoparticles play a vital role. They encapsulate the shRNA within their structure and protect them from degradation. The nanoparticles are sometimes positively charged so they readily penetrate the cell membrane and are internalized by the cell. These features of the nanoconjugate made them a potential therapeutic agent. In this study, we intended to discuss the wide variety of nanoconjugates and their applications in diseases.
Keywords: Chitosan nanoparticle, Cyclodextrin, Dendrimer nanoparticle, Gene therapy, Gold nanoparticle, Inorganic nanoparticle, Lipid nanoparticle, Luciferase, Magnetic nanoparticle, miRNA, Organic nanoparticle, Polymeric nanoparticle, PEG, PEI, PLGA, RNAi, shRNA, Silica nanoparticle, siRNA, Surviving.