Gene silencing is a mechanism by which several protein expressions may be controlled in eukaryotes. Since its invention, many studies have been performed for its diagnostic and therapeutic intervention. siRNAs have created special attention for the treatment of incurable and difficult disease conditions. However, there are many challenges regarding their systemic administration and stability in the blood vascular system. In this regard, nanoparticles are demonstrating unique properties that may make this tool applicable as an advanced delivery vehicle. In this study, we have discussed various challenges for the use of bare siRNAs in the human body. We have also discussed the methods that may be used to fabricate the nanoparticles in order to deliver siRNAs. Moreover, we have included several nanoparticle conjugates with their advantages and disadvantages while using them as a delivery vehicle.
Keywords: Blood-brain barrier, Carbon-based nanoconjugate, Carbon nanotube, Cyclodextrin, Dendrimer, Endocytosis, Gold nanoparticle, Gene silencing, Graphene, Hydrogel nanoparticle, Immune response, Intravenous administration, Lipid-based nanoconjugate, Magnetic nanoparticle, Metal oxide nanoparticles, Polymer, Quantum dot nanoparticle, Silica-based nanoparticles, Systemic administration, Theranostic.