Neurodegenerative diseases have been known to exist in the human population for a long time, yet most of them do not have a cure even until now. With the recent surge of nanotechnology and its applications to physiology as nanomedicine, a new hope for a better future has been offered. Nanomedicine has opened up many areas of further research that can lead us to a probable cure for these diseases. This review particularly focuses on Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. AD primarily affects the cerebral cortex in the forebrain and the hippocampus in the midbrain. According to the World Alzheimer’s report, there are 46.8 million AD patients worldwide as of 2016 with a high probability of this statistic becoming double in the next two decades. For understanding this crucial situation, studying the pathology of AD, and recent advancements in the treatment of AD, specifically through nanomedicine becomes extremely important. Through this review, we intend to explore all the relevant aspects in relation to nanotechnological advancements for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.