The hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are a population responsible of the hematopoiesis’s process; they have the characteristic to repeatedly divide or they can mature to generate different cell types, through the process of hematopoiesis. In this regenerative process, the cells are organized in a hierarchical structure: at the summit there are the hematopoietic stem cells and to the base, there is the progeny in differentiation. Hematopoietic cells commissioned to a particular hematic spinneret can be induced to convert themself in cells of the different spinner; another important feature of HSC is plasticity, that is the potential differentiation, thanks to which the cells are capable to undertake phenotypic and functional characteristics of other organs or tissues.
The process of hematopoiesis is regulated by numerous external and internal factors which operate on transcriptional level; this factors can also interact with each other.
Recently, knowledge about HSCs increases more and more; which allows their application also in clinical scope, to permanently treat serious pathologies.