Generic placeholder image

International Journal of Sensors, Wireless Communications and Control


ISSN (Print): 2210-3279
ISSN (Online): 2210-3287

Review Article

A Concise Review on Internet of Things: Architecture, Enabling Technologies, Challenges, and Applications

Author(s): Manasha Saqib* and Ayaz Hassan Moon

Volume 12, Issue 9, 2022

Published on: 02 January, 2023

Page: [629 - 650] Pages: 22

DOI: 10.2174/2210327913666221216160435

Price: $65


Background: With the advancements of ubiquitous computing, wireless sensor networks, and machine-to-machine communication, the Internet of Things (IoT) has become a constantly growing concept. The IoT is a new paradigm that interconnects all smart physical devices to provide smart services to users. It effectively delivers user-required services by utilising internet connectivity, sensors, and various technologies and protocols for the analysis and collection of data. IoT is predicted to permeate practically every facet of daily life, from smart cities to health care, smart agriculture, logistics and retail, and even smart living and smart ecosystems. Since IoT systems are comprised of heterogeneous hardware and networking technologies, integrating them to the software/ application level to extract information from massive amounts of data is a difficult task.

Methods: In this survey, the definitions, elements, working, architecture, fundamental technologies, key challenges, and potential applications of IoT are systematically reviewed. Initially, the various definitions and elements of IoT are introduced, followed by an explanation of how an IoT works. Additionally, an outline of IoT in the context of the architecture is presented. The primary enabling technologies that will drive IoT research in the near future are examined in this paper. Furthermore, the major key challenges that the research community must address, as well as potential solutions, are investigated. Finally, the paper concludes with some potential IoT applications to demonstrate the concept's feasibility in real-world scenarios.

Conclusion: The goal of this survey is to assist future researchers in identifying IoT-specific challenges and selecting appropriate technology based on application requirements.

Keywords: Internet of things, architecture, enabling technologies, challenges, IoT applications, RFID.

Next »
Graphical Abstract
Ashton K. That ‘internet of things’ thing. RFID J 2009; 22(7): 97-114.
Radio-Frequency Identification. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia Available from:[Accessed: May 2016]
Saqib M, Jasra B, Moon AH. A Systematized security and communication protocols stack review for internet of things. 2020 IEEE International Conference for Innovation in Technology (INOCON). 1-9.
Gamundani AM. An impact review on internet of things attacks. 2015 International Conference on Emerging Trends in Networks and Computer Communications (ETNCC). 114-8.
Mahalle PN, Anggorojati B, Prasad NR, Prasad R. Identity authentication and capability based access control (iacac) for the internet of things. J Cyber Secur Mobil 2013; 1(4): 309-48.
Rizzardi A, Sicari S, Miorandi D, Coen-Porisini A. AUPS: An open source authenticated publish/subscribe system for the internet of things. Inf Syst 2016; 62: 29-41.
Haller S. The Things in the Internet of Things. In Poster at the (IoT 2010) Tokyo, Japan. 2013.
Kang K, Pang Z, Wang C. Security and privacy mechanism for health internet of things. J China Univ Post Telecommun 2013; 20: 64-8.
Vermesan O, Friess P, Eds. Internet of things-from research and innovation to market deployment. Aalborg: River publishers 2014; Vol. 29.
Koshizuka N, Sakamura K. Ubiquitous ID: standards for ubiquitous computing and the internet of things. IEEE Pervasive Comput 2010; 9(4): 98-101.
Javaid M, Haleem A, Rab S, Pratap Singh R, Suman R. Sensors for daily life: A review. Sensors Inter 2021; 2: 100121.
Nemarich CP. Time domain reflectometry liquid level sensors. IEEE Instrum Meas Mag 2001; 4(4): 40-4.
Lucklum F, Jakoby B. Non-contact liquid level measurement with electromagnetic–acoustic resonator sensors. Meas Sci Technol 2009; 20(12): 124002.
Antonio-Lopez JE, Sanchez-Mondragon JJ. LiKamWa P, May-Arrioja DA. Fiber-optic sensor for liquid level measurement. Opt Lett 2011; 36(17): 3425-7.
[] [PMID: 21886232]
Zhang M, Xing Y, Zhang Z, Chen Q. Design and experiment of FBG-based icing monitoring on overhead transmission lines with an improvement trial for windy weather. Sensors (Basel) 2014; 14(12): 23954-69.
[] [PMID: 25615733]
Yamazoe N. Toward innovations of gas sensor technology. Sens Actuators B Chem 2005; 108(1-2): 2-14.
Lu L, Su X, Zhang C, Gao Q, Bu X. Study on the efficiency of temperature/strain measurement for ultra-long-distance optical fiber composite overhead power transmission lines. Appl Sci (Basel) 2022; 12(21): 11043.
Micco A, Ricciardi A, Quero G, Crescitelli A, Bock WJ, Cusano A. Simple technique for integrating compact silicon devices within optical fibers. Opt Lett 2014; 39(4): 861-4.
[] [PMID: 24562226]
Paladino D, Quero G, Caucheteur C, Mégret P, Cusano A. Hybrid fiber grating cavity for multi-parametric sensing. Opt Express 2010; 18(10): 10473-86.
[] [PMID: 20588901]
Zeng W, Gao H. Optic fiber sensing IOT technology and application research. Sensors & Transducers 2014; 180(10): 16.
Want R. An introduction to RFID technology. IEEE Pervasive Comput 2006; 5(1): 25-33.
Want R. Near field communication. IEEE Pervasive Comput 2011; 10(3): 4-7.
McDermott-Wells P. Bluetooth scatternet models. IEEE Potentials 2005; 23(5): 36-9.
Ferro E, Potorti F. Bluetooth and wi-fi wireless protocols: a survey and a comparison. IEEE Wirel Commun 2005; 12(1): 12-26.
Crosby GV, Vafa F. Wireless sensor networks and LTE-A network convergence 38th Annual IEEE conference on local computer networks. 731-4.
Levis P, Madden S, Polastre J, et al. TinyOS: An operating system for sensor networksAmbient intelligence. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer 2005; pp. 115-48.
Cao Q, Abdelzaher T, Stankovic J, He T. The liteos operating system: Towards unix-like abstractions for wireless sensor networks 2008 International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (ipsn 2008). 233-44.
Xing XJ, Wang JL, Li MD. Services and key technologies of the Internet of Things. ZTE Commun 2010; 2:-011.
Gigli M, Koo S. Internet of things: services and applications categorization. Adv Inter Things 2011; 1(2): 27-31.
Vertan C, Merkmale RF. Resource description framework (rdf). Links 2004.
McGuinness D L, Van Harmelen F. OWL web ontology language overview W3C recommendation. 2004; 10: p. (10)2004.
Bansal S, Kumar D. IoT ecosystem: A survey on devices, gateways, operating systems, middleware and communication. Int J Wirel Inf Netw 2020; 27(3): 340-64.
Wu M, Lu TJ, Ling FY, Sun J, Du HY. Research on the architecture of Internet of Things. In 2010 3rd international conference on advanced computer theory and engineering (ICACTE). 5: V5-484.
Abdmeziem MR, Tandjaoui D, Romdhani I. Architecting the internet of things: state of the art. Robots and Sensor Clouds 2016; pp. 55-75.
Khan R, Khan SU, Zaheer R, Khan S. Future internet: the internet of things architecture, possible applications and key challenges. In 2012 10th international conference on frontiers of information technology. 2012; pp. 257-60. IEEE
Jia X, Feng Q, Fan T, Lei Q. RFID technology and its applications in Internet of Things (IoT) In 2012 2nd international conference on consumer electronics, communications and networks (CECNet) . 2012; pp. 1282-5. IEEE
Leo M, Battisti F, Carli M, Neri A. A federated architecture approach for Internet of Things security. 2014 Euro Med Telco Conference (EMTC). 1-5. IEEE. 2014.
Bandyopadhyay S, Sengupta M, Maiti S, Dutta S. A survey of middleware for internet of things Recent trends in wireless and mobile networks. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer 2011; pp. 288-96.
Shi YR, Hou T. Internet of Things key technologies and architectures research in information processing. Appl Mech Mater 2013; 347-350: 2511-5.
Al-Fuqaha A, Guizani M, Mohammadi M, Aledhari M, Ayyash M. Internet of things: A survey on enabling technologies, protocols, and applications. IEEE Commun Surv Tutor 2015; 17(4): 2347-76.
Mashal I, Alsaryrah O, Chung TY, Yang CZ, Kuo WH, Agrawal DP. Choices for interaction with things on Internet and underlying issues. Ad Hoc Netw 2015; 28: 68-90.
Balaji S, Nathani K, Santhakumar R. IoT technology, applications and challenges: a contemporary survey. Wirel Pers Commun 2019; 108(1): 363-88.
Council A. Global Trends 2025: A Transformed World. Executive Summary of the National Intelligence Council report of the same name 2008.
Perwej Y, AbouGhaly MA, Kerim B, Harb H A M. An extended review on internet of things (iot) and its promising applications. Commun Appl Electr (CAE) ISSN 2019; 2394-4714.
Zhang J, Lai R, Kuo CCJ. Adaptive directional total-variation model for latent fingerprint segmentation. IEEE Trans Inf Forensics Secur 2013; 8(8): 1261-73.
Raj A, Shetty SD. IoT eco-system, layered architectures, security and advancing technologies: A comprehensive survey. Wirel Pers Commun 2021; 1-37.
Khoo B. RFID as an Enabler of the internet of things: Issues of security and privacy 2011 International Conference on Internet of Things and 4th International Conference on Cyber, Physical and Social Computing. 709-12.
Amendola S, Lodato R, Manzari S, Occhiuzzi C, Marrocco G. RFID technology for IoT-based personal healthcare in smart spaces. IEEE Internet Things J 2014; 1(2): 144-52.
Hutabarat DP, Patria D, Budijono S, Saleh R. Human tracking application in a certain closed area using RFID sensors and IP camera. 2016; pp. In 2016 3rd International Conference on Information Technology, Computer, and Electrical Engineering (ICITACEE). 11-6. IEEE.
Zou Y, Xiao J, Han J, Wu K, Li Y, Ni LM. Grfid: A device-free rfid-based gesture recognition system. IEEE Trans Mobile Comput 2017; 16(2): 381-93.
Sobin CC. A survey on architecture, protocols and challenges in IoT. Wirel Pers Commun 2020; 112(3): 1383-429.
Rayes A, Salam S. The things in iot: Sensors and actuators Internet of Things From Hype to Reality. Cham: Springer 2022; pp. 63-82.
Vidgren N, Haataja K, Patino-Andres JL, Ramirez-Sanchis JJ, Toivanen P. Security threats in ZigBee-enabled systems: Vulnerability evaluation, practical experiments, countermeasures, and lessons learned. 2013; pp. In 2013 46th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. 5132-8. IEEE.
Gulati K, Boddu RSK, Kapila D, Bangare SL, Chandnani N, Saravanan G. A review paper on wireless sensor network techniques in Internet of Things (IoT). Mater Today Proc 2021.
Chung MA, Chang WH. Low‐cost, low‐profile and miniaturized single‐plane antenna design for an Internet of Thing device applications operating in 5G, 4G, V2X, DSRC, WiFi 6 band, WLAN, and WiMAX communication systems. Microw Opt Technol Lett 2020; 62(4): 1765-73.
Vijayalakshmi AV, Arockiam L. A study on security issues and challenges in IoT. Int J Eng Sci Manage Res 2016; 3(11): 34-43.
Curran K, Millar A, Mc Garvey C. Near field communication. Iran J Electr Comput Eng 2012; 2(3): 371.
Coskun V, Ozdenizci B, Ok K. A survey on near field communication (NFC) technology. Wirel Pers Commun 2013; 71(3): 2259-94.
Basir R, Qaisar S, Ali M, et al. Fog computing enabling industrial internet of things: State-of-the-art and research challenges. Sensors (Basel) 2019; 19(21): 4807.
[] [PMID: 31694254]
Eun H, Lee H, Oh H. Conditional privacy preserving security protocol for NFC applications. IEEE Trans Consum Electron 2013; 59(1): 153-60.
Vejlgaard B, Lauridsen M, Nguyen H, Kovács IZ, Mogensen P, Sorensen M. Coverage and capacity analysis of sigfox, lora, gprs, and nb-iot. n 2017 IEEE 85th vehicular technology conference (VTC Spring) . 2017; pp. 1-5. IEEE.
Mekki K, Bajic E, Chaxel F, Meyer F. A comparative study of LPWAN technologies for large-scale IoT deployment. ICT express 2019; 5(1): 1-7.
Adelantado F, Vilajosana X, Tuset-Peiro P, Martinez B, Melia-Segui J, Watteyne T. Understanding the limits of LoRaWAN. IEEE Commun Mag 2017; 55(9): 34-40.
Akpakwu GA, Silva BJ, Hancke GP, Abu-Mahfouz AM. A survey on 5G networks for the Internet of Things Communication technologies and challenges. IEEE Access 2008; 6: 3619-47.
Nunez M. What Is 5G and How Will It Make My Life Better? Available on line 2018; 14.
Global mobile Suppliers Association The road to 5G: Drivers, Applications, Requirements and Technical Development Global Mobile Suppliers Association Surrey, UK 2015.
Li S, Da Xu L, Zhao S. 5G Internet of Things: A survey. J Ind Inf Integr 2018; 10: 1-9.
ETSI Machine-to-machine communications (M2M): Functional architecture. Int Telecomm Union 2011.
Fizza K, Banerjee A, Mitra K, et al. QoE in IoT: a vision, survey and future directions. Discov Int Things 2021; 1(1): 4.
Abssi Y, Mishra S, Shukla MK. Cloud computing and security in the IoT era. Helix 2020; 10(04): 51-8.
Rathee G, Garg S, Kaddoum G, Choi BJ. Decision-making model for securing IoT devices in smart industries. IEEE Trans Industr Inform 2021; 17(6): 4270-8.
Balliu M, Bastys I, Sabelfeld A. Securing IoT apps. IEEE Secur Priv 2019; 17(5): 22-9.
Matharu GS, Upadhyay P, Chaudhary L. The internet of things: Challenges & security issues 2014 International Conference on Emerging Technologies (ICET). 54-9.
Datta SK, Bonnet C. Integrating named data networking in internet of things architecture. 2016 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics-Taiwan (ICCE-TW). 1-2.
Baccelli E, Mehlis C, Hahm O, Schmidt TC, Wählisch M. Information centric networking in the IoT: Experiments with NDN in the wild. Proceedings of the 1st ACM conference on information-centric networking. 77-86.
Gupta A, Christie R, Manjula R. Scalability in internet of things: features, techniques and research challenges. Int J Comput Intell Res 2017; 13(7): 1617-27.
Kumar S, Tiwari P, Zymbler M. Internet of Things is a revolutionary approach for future technology enhancement: a review. J Big Data 2019; 6(1): 111.
Ryan P, Watson R. Research challenges for the internet of things: what role can or play? Systems 2017; 5(1): 24.
Badawy MM, Ali ZH, Ali HA. QoS provisioning framework for service-oriented internet of things (IoT). Cluster Comput 2020; 23(2): 575-91.
Raj JS, Basar A. QoS optimization of energy efficient routing in IoT wireless sensor networks. J ISMAC 2019; 1(01): 12-23.
Saqib M, Jasra B, Moon A H. A lightweight three factor authentication framework for IoT based critical applications. ournal of King Saud University-Computer and Information Sciences 2021.
Shang W, Ding Q, Marianantoni A, Burke J, Zhang L. Securing building management systems using named data networking. IEEE Netw 2014; 28(3): 50-6.
Liu J, Xiao Y, Chen CP. Authentication and access control in the internet of things. In 2012 32nd international conference on distributed computing systems workshops. 588-92. IEEE.
Zhang ZK, Cho MCY, Wang CW, Hsu CW, Chen CK, Shieh S. IoT security: ongoing challenges and research opportunities. In 2014 IEEE 7th international conference on service-oriented computing and applications . 230-4. IEEE.
Al-Mahdi H, Kalil MA. A dynamic hop-aware buffer management scheme for multi-hop ad hoc networks. IEEE Wirel Commun Lett 2016; 6(1): 1.
Sobin CC. An efficient buffer management policy for DTN. Procedia Comput Sci 2016; 93: 309-14.
Ahmad A, Cuomo S, Wu W, Jeon G. Intelligent algorithms and standards for interoperability in internet of things. Future Gener Comput Syst 2019; 92: 1187-91.
Noura M, Atiquzzaman M, Gaedke M. Interoperability in internet of things: Taxonomies and open challenges. Mob Netw Appl 2019; 24(3): 796-809.
Mukherjee A, Paul HS, Dey S, Banerjee A. ANGELS for distributed analytics in IoT. In 2014 IEEE World Forum on Internet ofThings (WF-IoT). 565-70. IEEE
Pawar M, Agarwal J. A literature survey on security issues of WSN and different types of attacks in network. Indian J Comput Sci Eng 2017; 8(2): 80-3.
Saqib M, Jasra B, Moon AH. Mutual authentication protocol for green internet of things in content centric network. J Green Eng 2020; 10: 4896-909.
Batalla JM, Vasilakos A, Gajewski M. Secure smart homes: Opportunities and challenges. ACM Comput Surv 2018; 50(5): 1-32.
Patel KK, Patel SM. Internet of things-IOT: definition, characteristics, architecture, enabling technologies, application & future challenges. International journal of engineering science and computing. Int J Eng Sci 2016; 6(5)
Porkodi R, Bhuvaneswari V. The internet of things (IOT) applications and communication enabling technology standards An overview 2014 International conference on intelligent computing applications. 324-9.
Vilamovska A M, Hatziandreu E, Schindler H R, Van Oranje-Nassau C, De Vries H. Study on the requirements and options for RFID application in health care. Identifying areas for RFID deploymentin healthcare delivery: a review of relevant literature 2009.
Hassija V, Chamola V, Saxena V, Jain D, Goyal P, Sikdar B. A survey on IoT security: application areas, security threats, and solution architectures. IEEE Access 2019; 7: 82721-43.
Indrakumari R, Poongodi T, Suresh P, Balamurugan B. The growing role of internet of things in healthcare wearable’s emergence of pharmaceutical industry growth with industrial IoT approach. Academic Press 2020; pp. 163-94.
Hermann M, Pentek T, Otto B. Design principles for Industries 40 scenarios. IEEE Computer Society. 2016; 2016.

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy