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Current Alzheimer Research


ISSN (Print): 1567-2050
ISSN (Online): 1875-5828

Mini-Review Article

Triplication of Synaptojanin 1 in Alzheimer’s Disease Pathology in Down Syndrome

Author(s): Robert Hwang Jr., Lam-Ha Dang, Jacinda Chen, Joseph H. Lee and Catherine Marquer*

Volume 19, Issue 12, 2022

Published on: 27 December, 2022

Page: [795 - 807] Pages: 13

DOI: 10.2174/1567205020666221202102832

Price: $65


Down Syndrome (DS), caused by triplication of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) is the most common form of intellectual disability worldwide. Recent progress in healthcare has resulted in a dramatic increase in the lifespan of individuals with DS. Unfortunately, most will develop Alzheimer’s disease like dementia (DS-AD) as they age. Understanding similarities and differences between DSAD and the other forms of the disease - i.e., late-onset AD (LOAD) and autosomal dominant AD (ADAD) - will provide important clues for the treatment of DS-AD. In addition to the APP gene that codes the precursor of the main component of amyloid plaques found in the brain of AD patients, other genes on Hsa21 are likely to contribute to disease initiation and progression. This review focuses on SYNJ1, coding the phosphoinositide phosphatase synaptojanin 1 (SYNJ1). First, we highlight the function of SYNJ1 in the brain. We then summarize the involvement of SYNJ1 in the different forms of AD at the genetic, transcriptomic, proteomic and neuropathology levels in humans. We further examine whether results in humans correlate with what has been described in murine and cellular models of the disease and report possible mechanistic links between SYNJ1 and the progression of the disease. Finally, we propose a set of questions that would further strengthen and clarify the role of SYNJ1 in the different forms of AD.

Keywords: Synaptojanin 1, Down syndrome, Alzheimer’s disease, late-onset, autosomal dominant, genetic association, neuropathology, disease models, APP, growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2).

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