Generic placeholder image

Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology


ISSN (Print): 2211-7385
ISSN (Online): 2211-7393

Review Article

A Current Review on Drug Loaded Nanofibers: Interesting and Valuable Platform for Skin Cancer Treatment

Author(s): Navneet Mehan, Manish Kumar*, Shailendra Bhatt and Vipin Saini

Volume 8, Issue 3, 2020

Page: [191 - 206] Pages: 16

DOI: 10.2174/2211738508666200121103110

Price: $65


Background: Nanofibers are used in topical medication for various skin diseases like wound healing, skin cancer and others. Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) are the most widely distributed diseases in the world, of which 99% of people are affected by either basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) or squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the skin. Skin malignancy is caused by direct sun exposure and regular application of unsafe restorative items on the skin.

Objective: This review presents the use of nanofibers in skin cancer treatment and advances made in skin cancer treatment.

Methods: There are various methods used in the production of nanofibers such as bicomponent extrusion, phase separation, template synthesis, drawing, electrospinning, and others. Electrospinning is the most widely used technique for nanofiber fabrication. The nanofibers are produced in nanometer size range and mostly used in medication because of their low thickness, large surface area per unit mass and porosity. Nanofibers are also used as drug delivery system for sustaining the action of drugs or medicaments.

Results: Nanofibers enhance the permeation and availability of those drugs having low bioavailability and low permeability. Nanofibers increase the sustainability of the drugs up to 10 days.

Conclusion: Skin cancer is the abnormal growth of skin cells in the body influencing people of all colours and skin. In this review paper, the definition and production techniques of nanofibers and drugs used in skin cancer treatment and the relation between skin cancer and nanofiber are illustrated in detail. With the help of different techniques and drugs, the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer is reduced.

Lay Summary: The risk of skin cancer and other skin problems is increasing day by day. In a previous study we found that the nanofibers are less used as a topical delivery system. We have studied the nanofibers as a drug delivery system in the treatment of skin cancer by using different drugs. According our study nanofibers are most useful in skin drug delivery and if the nanofiber, are merging with other drug delivery system like nanoparticles, it may maximize the output of drug into skin. The significance of this study is, to explain all information about nanofibers in skin cancer.

Keywords: Chemotherapy, controlled medication, electrospinning, malignant, nanofibers, skin cancer.

Graphical Abstract
Kanitakis J. Anatomy, histology and immunohistochemistry of normal human skin. Eur J Dermatol 2002; 12(4): 390-9.
[PMID: 12095893]
James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM. Andrews’ diseases of the skin: clinical dermatology. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders 2006.
Murphy GF. Histology of the skin.In: Elenitsas R, Johnson B, eds. . Histopathology of the skin. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 1997; pp. 5-45.
Chu DH, In K, Wolff A, Goldsmith SI, Katz BA, Gilchrest AS. Overview of biology, development, and structure of skin.In: Fitzpatrick TB. . Fitzpatrick’s dermatology in general medicine. New York: McGraw-Hill 2008.
Johnson TM, Dolan OM, Hamilton TA, Lu MC, Swanson NA, Lowe L. Clinical and histologic trends of melanoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 1998; 38(5 Pt 1): 681-6.
[] [PMID: 9591810]
Janine G. Einsphar, Steven P Stratton, G Timothy Bowden, David S Albert. Chemoprevention of human skin cancer. J Hematol (Brossard) 2002; 41: 269-85.
Hrustic Alisa, Risher Brittany. Prevention Medical Review Board ALISA HRUSTIC Health Editor, Preventioncom. 2019.
Nalwa HS. Handbook of nanostructured materials and nanotechnology. San Diego: Academic press 2000.
Ko FK, Wan Y. Introduction to nanofiber materials. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press 2014.
Krupke R, Hennrich F. Löhneysen Hv, Kappes MM. Separation of metallic from semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes. Science 2003; 301(5631): 344-7.
[] [PMID: 12829788]
Couillaud BM, Espeau P, Mignet N, Corvis Y. State of the art of pharmaceutical solid forms from crystal property issues to nanocrystals formulation. ChemMedChem 2019; 14(1): 8-23.
[] [PMID: 30457705]
Ahmed A, Sakhawy Elshakankery MH, Kasem MH. Technology of nano-fibers: production techniques and properties. J Text Inst 2017; 78(1): 1-14.
Maryann TJ. Types of fiber and their health benefits 2014.Available at:
Poole Charles Jr and Frank J. Owens. Introduction to nanotechnology. NY: John Wiley and Sons 2003; pp. 470-9.
Akhgari A, Heshmati Z, Sharif Makhmalzadeh B. Indomethacin electrospun nanofibers for colonic drug delivery: preparation and characterization. Adv Pharm Bull 2013; 3(1): 85-90.
[,] [PMID: 24312817]
Kaur V, Garg T, Rath G, Goyal AK. Therapeutic potential of nanocarrier for overcoming to P-glycoprotein. J Drug Target 2014; 22(10): 859-70.
[] [PMID: 25101945]
Chen LQ, Kang XJ, Sun J, Deng JJ, Gu ZZ, Lu ZH. Application of nanofiber-packed SPE for determination of salivary-free cortisol using fluorescence precolumn derivatization and HPLC detection. J Sep Sci 2010; 33(15): 2369-75.
[] [PMID: 20574955]
Ramakrishna S, Fujihara K, Teo WE. An introduction to electrospinning and nanofibers. Singapore: World Scientific 2015.
Hagewood JF. Polymeric nanofibers: fantasy or future. Int Fibers J 2002; 12: 62-3.
Khude P. Nanofibers for high efficiency filtration. J Mar Sci Eng 2017; 6(6): 399.
Huang ZM, Zhang YZ, Kotaki M, Ramakrishna S. A review on polymer nanofibers by electrospinning and their applications in nanocomposites. Compos Sci Technol 2003; 63: 2223-53.
Anton F. Process and apparatus for preparing artificial threads. United States patent US 1975504, 1934.
Zussman E, Rittel D, Yarin AL. Failure modes of electrospun fibers. Appl Phys Lett 2003; 82(22): 3958-60.
Ma PX, Zhang R. Synthetic nano-scale fibrous extracellular matrix. J Biomed Mater Res 1999; 46(1): 60-72.
[<60:AID-JBM7>3.0.CO;2-H] [PMID: 10357136]
Smith LA, Ma PX. Nano-fibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2004; 39(3): 125-31.
[] [PMID: 15556341]
Kattamuri SBK, Potti L, Vinukonda A, Bandi V. Nanofibers in pharmaceuticals-A review. J Pharm Res 2012; 2(6): 188-212.
Jayaraman K, Kotaki M, Zhang Y, Mo X, Ramakrishna S. Recent advances in polymer nanofibers. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2004; 4(1-2): 52-65.
[PMID: 15112541]
Ondarçuhu T, Joachim C. Drawing a single nanofibre over hundreds of microns. Europhys Lett 1998; 42(2): 215-20.
Yang HF, Yan Y, Liu Y. A Simple melt impregnation method to synthesize ordered mesoporous carbon and carbon nanofiber bundles with graphitized structure from pitches. J Phys Chem 2004; 108(45): 17320-8.
Li X, Tian S, Ping Y, Kim DH, Knoll W. One-step route to the fabrication of highly porous polyaniline nanofiber films by using PSb-PVP diblock copolymers as templates. Langmuir 2005; 21(3): 9393-7.
[] [PMID: 15667170]
Feng J, Li J, Lv W, Xu H, Yang H, Yan W. Synthesis of polypyrrole nano-fibers with hierarchical structure and its adsorption property of Acid Red G from aqueous solution. Synth Met 2014; 191(5): 6673.
Feng L, Li S, Li H, et al. Super hydrophobic surface of aligned polyacrylonitrile nanoflbers. Angew Chem 2002; 114(7): 1269-71.
[ 7<1269::AID-ANGE1269>3.0.CO;2-E]
Ashjaran A, Namayi A. Survey on nanofibers material as drug delivery systems. RJPBCS 2014; 5(3): 1262-74.
Lewin M, Sello SB. Handbook of fiber science and technology. New York: M. Dekker 1985.
Hegde RR, Dahiya A, Kamath MG. Bicomponent Fibers 2006.Available at:
Hassan MA, Yeom BY, Wilkie A, Pourdeyhimi B, Khan SA. Fabrication of nanofiber meltblown membranes and their filtration properties. J Membr 2013; 427: 336-44.
Vasita R, Katti DS. Nanofibers and their applications in tissue engineering. Int J Nanomedicine 2006; 1(1): 15-30.
[] [PMID: 17722259]
Khajavi R, Abbssipour M, Bahador A. Electrospun biodegradable nanofiber scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. J Appl Polym Sci 2016; 133(3): 1-9.
Shih YR, Chen CN, Tsai SW, Wang YJ, Lee OK. Growth of mesenchymal stem cells on electrospun type I collagen nanofibers. Stem Cells 2006; 24(11): 2391-7.
[] [PMID: 17071856]
Kim KH, Jeong L, Park HN, et al. Biological efficacy of silk fibroin nanofiber membranes for guided bone regeneration. J Biotechnol 2005; 120(3): 327-39.
[] [PMID: 16150508]
Azimi B. Poly (ε-caprolactone) fiber: an overview. J Eng Fibers Fabrics 2014; 9(3): 74-90.
Aboofazeli R, Lawrence MJ. Investigations into the formation and characterization of phospholipid microemulsions. II. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams of systems containing waterlecithin-isopropyl myristate and alcohol: influence of purity of lecithin. Int J Pharm 1994; 106: 51-61.
Aboofazeli R, Patel N, Thomas M, Lawrence MJ. Investigations into the formation and characterization of phospholipid microemulsions. IV. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams of systems containing water-lecithin alcohol and oil; the influence of oil. Int J Pharm 1995; 125(1): 107-16.
Ojea-Jiménez I, Comenge J, García-Fernández L, Megson ZA, Casals E, Puntes VF. Engineered inorganic nanoparticles for drug delivery applications. Curr Drug Metab 2013; 14(5): 518-30.
[] [PMID: 23116108]
Li F, Vijayasankaran N, Shen A, Kiss R, Amanullah A. Cell culture processes for monoclonal antibody production 2010; 2(5): 466-79.
Maeda H. The enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect in tumor vasculature: the key role of tumor-selective macromolecular drug targeting. Adv Enzyme Regul 2001; 41: 189-207.
[] [PMID: 11384745]
Brys AK, Gowda R, Loriaux DB, Robertson GP, Mosca PJ. Nanotechnology-based strategies for combating toxicity and resistance in melanoma therapy. Biotechnol Adv 2016; 34(5): 565-77.
[] [PMID: 26826558]
Burg KJ, Porter S, Kellam JF. Biomaterial developments for bone tissue engineering. Biomaterials 2000; 21(23): 2347-59.
[] [PMID: 11055282]
Sun B. Advances in three-dimensional nanofibrous macrostructures via electrospinning. Prog Polym Sci 2014; 39(5): 862-90.
Elsdale T, Bard J. Collagen substrata for studies on cell behavior. Cell Biol (Henderson NV) 1972; 54: 626.
Sharifi F. Fiber based approaches as medicine delivery systems. ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2016; 2(9): 1411-31.
Ahn S. Microfluidic spinning of fibrous alginate carrier having highly enhanced drug loading capability and delayed release profile. RSC Advances 2015; 5(20): 15172-81.
Garg T, Rath G, Goyal AK. Biomaterials-based nanofiber scaffold: targeted and controlled carrier for cell and drug delivery. J Drug Target 2015; 23(3): 202-21.
[] [PMID: 25539071]
Shuhaib B, Junaid TL, Neffi Rafiya SK. An overview of nanofibers in drug delivery system. WJPLS 2018; 4(3): 50-60.
Chen JF, Zhu Y, Lu YT, et al. Clinical applications of NanoVelcro rare-cell assays for detection and characterization of circulating tumor cells. Theranostics 2016; 6(9): 1425-39.
[] [PMID: 27375790]
Ke Z, Lin M, Chen JF, et al. Programming thermoresponsiveness of NanoVelcro substrates enables effective purification of circulating tumor cells in lung cancer patients. ACS Nano 2015; 9(1): 62-70.
[] [PMID: 25495128]
Cristofanilli M, Hayes DF, Budd GT, et al. Circulating tumor cells: a novel prognostic factor for newly diagnosed metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23(7): 1420-30.
[] [PMID: 15735118]
Lu YT, Zhao L, Shen Q, et al. NanoVelcro Chip for CTC enumeration in prostate cancer patients. Methods 2013; 64(2): 144-52.
[] [PMID: 23816790]
Zhang B. Recent advances in electrospun carbon nanofibers and their application in electrochemical energy storage. Prog Mater Sci 2016; 76: 319-80.
Lithium-air batteries. Their time has come. The Economist 2016.Available at: https://www.economist. com/science-and-technology/2016/08/06/their-time-has-come
Yang X, He P, Xia Y. Preparation of mesocellular carbon foam and its application for lithium/oxygen battery. Electrochem Commun 2009; 11(6): 1127-30.
Scholten E, Bromberg L, Rutledge GC, Hatton TA. Electrospun polyurethane fibers for absorption of volatile organic compounds from air. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2011; 3(10): 3902-9.
[] [PMID: 21888418]
Graham K. Polymeric nanofibers in air filtration applications. Fifteenth Annual Technical Conference & Expo of the American Filtration & Separations Society.
Sarbatly R, Krishnaiah D, Kamin Z. A review of polymer nanofibres by electrospinning and their application in oil-water separation for cleaning up marine oil spills. Mar Pollut Bull 2016; 106(1-2): 8-16.
[] [PMID: 27016959]
Goyal R, Macri LK, Kaplan HM, Kohn J. Nanoparticles and nanofibers for topical drug delivery. J Control Release 2016; 240: 77-92.
Longley DB, Harkin DP, Johnston PG. 5-fluorouracil: mechanisms of action and clinical strategies. Nat Rev Cancer 2003; 3(5): 330-8.
[] [PMID: 12724731]
Fluorouracil topical. The American Society of Health- System Pharmacists 2016.Archived from the original on 26 December
Khan F, Aldhahri M, Hussain M. Gauthaman Kalamegam, Memic A. Encapsulation of 5-flurouracil into plga nanofibers and enhanced anticancer effect in combination with ajwa-dates-extract. J Biomed Nanotechnol 2018; 14: 553-63.
[] [PMID: 29663927]
Walter A, Schäfer M. Aldara activates TLR7-independent immune defence. Nat Commun 2013; 4(1): 1-3.
Rajagopalan PT, Zhang Z, McCourt L, Dwyer M, Benkovic SJ, Hammes GG. Interaction of dihydrofolate reductase with methotrexate: ensemble and single-molecule kinetics. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002; 99(21): 13481-6.
[] [PMID: 12359872]
Pommier Y, Leo E, Zhang H, Marchand C. DNA topoisomerases and their poisoning by anticancer and antibacterial drugs. Chem Biol 2010; 17(5): 421-33.
[] [PMID: 20534341]
Etoposide. The American Society of Health-system Pharmacists . 2016.
Fakhria A, Tahami S, Nejad PA. Preparation and characterization of Fe3O4-Ag2O quantum dots decorated cellulose nanofibers as a carrier of anticancer drugs for skin cancer. J Photochem Photobiol B 2017; 175: 83-8.
Tacar O, Sriamornsak P, Dass CR. Doxorubicin: an update on anticancer molecular action, toxicity and novel drug delivery systems. Pharm Pharmacol Int J 2013; 65(2): 157-70.
Patel G, Yadav BKN. Formulation, characterization and in vitro cytotoxicity of 5-fluorouracil loaded polymeric electrospun nanofibers for the treatment of skin cancer. Recent Pat Nanotechnol 2019; 13(2): 114-28.
Garrett R, Niiyama E. Biodegradable nanofiber for delivery of immunomodulating agent in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma. Fibers 2015; 3: 478-90.
Yu Y, Kong L, Li L, Li N, Yan P. Antitumor activity of doxorubicin-loaded carbon nanotubes incorporated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) electrospun composite nanofibers. Nanoscale Res Lett 2015; 10(1): 1044.
[] [PMID: 26306537]
Sampath M, Lakra R, Korrapati P, Sengottuvelan B. Curcumin loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanofiber for the treatment of carcinoma. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2014; 117: 128-34.
[] [PMID: 24646452]
Lin WC, Yeh IT, Niyama E, Huang WR, Ebara M, Wu CS. Electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) nanofibrous mesh for imiquimod delivery in melanoma therapy. Polymers (Basel) 2018; 10(3): 231.
[] [PMID: 30966266]

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy