Nanotechnology has contributed a great deal to the field of medical science. It has enabled researchers to design tools to deliver drugs to specific targets in a living organism. Smart drug delivery vectors, combined with stimuli-based characteristics, are becoming increasingly important. The use of external and internal stimulating factors can have enormous benefits in combination with such drug delivery vectors, as they increase the targeting efficiency of nanotechnology-based platforms. An example of a stimulating factor is the pH of a target cell's surrounding microenvironment. The pH values of tumor vascular tissues are acidic in nature, allowing the improved targeting of anticancer drug payloads using drug-delivery vectors. Nanopolymers are smart drug-delivery vectors that have recently been developed and recommended for use by scientists because of their potential targeting capabilities, non-toxicity and biocompatibility, and make them ideal nanocarriers for personalized drug delivery. This review article provides a summary of current advances in the use of nanoparticles (NPs) as anticancer drug-delivery vectors. It provides information about the molecular basis for the use of NPs in medicine, including personalized medicine, personalized therapy, emerging vistas in anticancer therapy, nanopolymer targeting, passive and active targeting transports, pH-responsive drug carriers, biological barriers, computer-aided drug design, future challenges and perspectives, biodegradability and safety. Researchers, clinicians, and key decision makers in regulatory authorities will benefit from the information provided as it provides a basis for advanced research projects.