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New Emirates Medical Journal

Volume 3, 2 Issues, 2022
ISSN: 0250-6882 (Online)
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Open Access Article

The Discrepancy between Gross Features and Chemical Compositions in Gallbladder Stone: A Descriptive Single Center Study in the United Arab Emirates



Byung Hyo Cha1, *, Min Jung Park1, Joo Yeong Baeg1, Sunpyo Lee1, Young Joon Ahn2, Wafaa Salem Obaid Al Salami3, Osama Mohamed Ibrahim Idris3, Duckjin Hong4, Byoungkwon Kim5, Hyo Jin Park5
1 Department of Gastroenterology, Division of Medicine, Sheikh Khalifa Specialty Hospital, Ras Al Khaimah, UAE
2 Department of Surgical Oncology, Oncology Center, Sheikh Khalifa Specialty Hospital, Ras Al Khaimah, UAE
3 Division of Medicine, Sheikh Khalifa Specialty Hospital, Ras Al Khaimah, UAE
4 Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Imaging & Laboratory, Sheikh Khalifa Specialty Hospital, Ras Al Khaimah, UAE
5 Department of Pathology, Division of Imaging & Laboratory, Sheikh Khalifa Specialty Hospital, Ras Al Khaimah, UAE

Abstract

Background and Study Aim:

Gallbladder stone (GBS) is a common gastrointestinal disease that is the primary indication for cholecystectomy. The present study was conducted to describe the chemical composition of gallstones in a tertiary referral hospital in the United Arab Emirates.

Materials and Methods:

Patients diagnosed with GBS and who underwent cholecystectomy due to symptomatic GBS and cholecystitis in Sheikh Khalifa Specialty Hospital were enrolled in this study. After cholecystectomy, all stone specimens were classified according to their gross findings into 4 groups, namely black pigmented stones (BLPS), brown pigmented stones (BRPS), mixed cholesterol stones, and cholesterol stones (CLS). Quantitative analysis using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was then performed to define the stones’ chemical constituents. They were reclassified into two groups as CLS (cholesterol ≥ 60%) and pigmented stones (PGS, cholesterol ≤ 59%) based on gallstone composition analysis.

Results:

A total of 237 stones were divided into four groups based on their gross findings; cholesterol stones (32.0%), mixed cholesterol (29.2%), black pigmented (26.4%), and brown pigmented (12.3%). After chemical composition analysis, they were resorted into the two following groups according to their cholesterol proportions: pigmented (28.3%) and cholesterol (71.7%). There were significant statistical mean age differences between the pigmented and cholesterol stone groups (58.5±19.8 vs. 34.4±11.0, p < 0.01).

Conclusion:

This descriptive study showed the hospital-based clinical incidence of GBS and suggested that there might be a discrepancy in stone classification based on gross findings and chemical compositions. Moreover, pigmented stones are more likely to be present in older patients than cholesterol stones.

Keywords: Gallbladder stone, Cholecystectomy, Gallstone analysis, Black pigmented stone, Brown pigmented stone, Mixed cholesterol stone, Cholesterol stone, Age, Female.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2022
Volume: 3
Issue: 1
First Page: 47
Last Page: 53
Publisher Id: nemj-3-47
DOI: 10.2174/02666211213152117

Article History:

Received Date: 12/4/2021
Revision Received Date: 28/8/2021
Acceptance Date: 8/10/2021
Electronic publication date: 21/01/2022
Collection year: 2022

© 2022 Cha et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at Department of Gastroenterology, Division of Medicine, Sheikh Khalifa Specialty Hospital, Truck Road, Ras Al Khaimah 6365, UAE; Tel: +971-56-385-3131; Fax: +971-7-244-4437; E-mail: doctorhyo@gmail.com





Editor-in-Chief

Abdullah Shehab
Emirates Cardiac Society
Emirates Medical Association
Dubai
(United Arab Emirates)
Biography
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Acceptance rate = 40%

Average review speed: 45 days average

18 days from acceptance to publication