The Discrepancy between Gross Features and Chemical Compositions in Gallbladder Stone: A Descriptive Single Center Study in the United Arab Emirates
Byung Hyo Cha1, *, Min Jung Park1, Joo Yeong Baeg1, Sunpyo Lee1, Young Joon Ahn2, Wafaa Salem Obaid Al Salami3, Osama Mohamed Ibrahim Idris3, Duckjin Hong4, Byoungkwon Kim5, Hyo Jin Park5
1 Department of Gastroenterology, Division of Medicine, Sheikh Khalifa Specialty Hospital, Ras Al Khaimah, UAE
2 Department of Surgical Oncology, Oncology Center, Sheikh Khalifa Specialty Hospital, Ras Al Khaimah, UAE
3 Division of Medicine, Sheikh Khalifa Specialty Hospital, Ras Al Khaimah, UAE
4 Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Imaging & Laboratory, Sheikh Khalifa Specialty Hospital, Ras Al Khaimah, UAE
5 Department of Pathology, Division of Imaging & Laboratory, Sheikh Khalifa Specialty Hospital, Ras Al Khaimah, UAE
Background and Study Aim:
Gallbladder stone (GBS) is a common gastrointestinal disease that is the primary indication for cholecystectomy. The present study was conducted to describe the chemical composition of gallstones in a tertiary referral hospital in the United Arab Emirates.
Materials and Methods:
Patients diagnosed with GBS and who underwent cholecystectomy due to symptomatic GBS and cholecystitis in Sheikh Khalifa Specialty Hospital were enrolled in this study. After cholecystectomy, all stone specimens were classified according to their gross findings into 4 groups, namely black pigmented stones (BLPS), brown pigmented stones (BRPS), mixed cholesterol stones, and cholesterol stones (CLS). Quantitative analysis using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was then performed to define the stones’ chemical constituents. They were reclassified into two groups as CLS (cholesterol ≥ 60%) and pigmented stones (PGS, cholesterol ≤ 59%) based on gallstone composition analysis.
A total of 237 stones were divided into four groups based on their gross findings; cholesterol stones (32.0%), mixed cholesterol (29.2%), black pigmented (26.4%), and brown pigmented (12.3%). After chemical composition analysis, they were resorted into the two following groups according to their cholesterol proportions: pigmented (28.3%) and cholesterol (71.7%). There were significant statistical mean age differences between the pigmented and cholesterol stone groups (58.5±19.8 vs. 34.4±11.0, p < 0.01).
This descriptive study showed the hospital-based clinical incidence of GBS and suggested that there might be a discrepancy in stone classification based on gross findings and chemical compositions. Moreover, pigmented stones are more likely to be present in older patients than cholesterol stones.
Keywords: Gallbladder stone, Cholecystectomy, Gallstone analysis, Black pigmented stone, Brown pigmented stone, Mixed cholesterol stone, Cholesterol stone, Age, Female.
open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
* Address correspondence to this author at Department of Gastroenterology, Division of Medicine, Sheikh Khalifa Specialty Hospital, Truck Road, Ras Al Khaimah 6365, UAE; Tel: +971-56-385-3131; Fax: +971-7-244-4437; E-mail: email@example.com
Abdullah Shehab Emirates Cardiac Society Emirates Medical Association Dubai (United Arab Emirates) Biography
Biography of Abdullah Shehab
Dr. Abdullah Shehab has 22 years of experience in Internal medicine, cardiology and interventional cardiology and medical education. Currently, he serves as the General Secretary of Emirates Cardiac Society and Vice President of Gulf Intervention Society. He is a Fellow of royal college of physicians UK, American college of physician, European society of cardiology, American college of cardiology, American society of cardiac intervention and fellow of the American heart association. Professor Shehab is the Chief Editor of Emirates Medical Journal and also serves as Editor in many other regional and international journals. Dr. Shehab has published 149 paper in Medline. His research interest includes: Heart failure, Coronary artery disease, Dyslipidaemia, Hypertension, Arrhythmias, Cardiac intervention, Cardiac imaging, Screening for cardiac disease in sport players, cardiovascular disease in pregnancy.