1 Department of Allergy, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañon, Madrid, Spain
2 Department of I+D, Roxall, Parque cient. y tecnol. de Bizkaia, edif. 401, 48170 Zamudio, BI, Spain
Rituximab is a chimeric murine/human monoclonal antibody against CD20. It can be used off-label in autoimmune diseases. Its administration can lead to several types of reactions; immediate infusional reactions and also delayed reactions like Serum Sickness Reaction (SSR).
This is a case study of a 48 years old woman diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis/systemic lupus erythematosus who developed refractory immune thrombocytopenic purpura and received treatment with rituximab. After treatment, she developed erythematous-violet lesions accompanied with fever of 38ºC, dyspnea, joints arthralgia and edema. In the emergency department, hypotension, fever, dyspnea, and shivering were observed, for which, intramuscular epinephrine, intravenous corticosteroids, antibiotics and salbutamol nebulization were administered. In our allergy unit, we performed an intradermal test (IDT) with rituximab (1mg/ml), which was positive at immediate (20min) and late (48h) reading. Based on the clinical manifestations and test carried out, she was diagnosed with rituximab SSR. We also studied the molecular mass of the IgE-reactive proteins present in rituximab product by SDS-PAGE Immunoblotting method according to Laemmli, in reducing and non-reducing conditions, with high sensitivity and using three different polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane blocking substances (skimmed cow's milk, fish collagen and egg white). We did not detect IgE-binding to rituximab product.
The pathogenesis of SSR is not well known. The patients after reinfusion can develop immediate reactions suggesting involvement of IgE hypersensitivity. Nevertheless, there are patients who tolerated reinfusion. Further studies and assays are needed for a better understanding of these reactions and to lead to a safer re-administration if needed.
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Abdullah Shehab Emirates Cardiac Society Emirates Medical Association Dubai (United Arab Emirates) Biography
Biography of Abdullah Shehab
Dr. Abdullah Shehab has 22 years of experience in Internal medicine, cardiology and interventional cardiology and medical education. Currently, he serves as the General Secretary of Emirates Cardiac Society and Vice President of Gulf Intervention Society. He is a Fellow of royal college of physicians UK, American college of physician, European society of cardiology, American college of cardiology, American society of cardiac intervention and fellow of the American heart association. Professor Shehab is the Chief Editor of Emirates Medical Journal and also serves as Editor in many other regional and international journals. Dr. Shehab has published 149 paper in Medline. His research interest includes: Heart failure, Coronary artery disease, Dyslipidaemia, Hypertension, Arrhythmias, Cardiac intervention, Cardiac imaging, Screening for cardiac disease in sport players, cardiovascular disease in pregnancy.